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    Farthest Frontier

    This module is intended to be used inside {{infobox}} (letters WikidataIB stand for Info Box, hence the name) or other templates and designed specifically to allow editors of an article (as opposed to editors of the infobox the article uses) to control whether Wikidata values are displayed.

    One of the two sandboxes should be used for testing anything other than trivial amendments.

    Test examples for the main module and the two sandboxes are available.

    Modules and test cases
    Module Test cases
    Main Module:WikidataIB Module talk:WikidataIB/testing
    sandbox Module:WikidataIB/sandbox (Template:Compare pages) Module talk:WikidataIB/sandbox/testing (Template:Compare pages)
    sandbox1 Module:WikidataIB/sandbox1 (Template:Compare pages) Module talk:WikidataIB/sandbox1/testing (Template:Compare pages)

    Overview[edit source]

    The module provides these calls specifically for use in infoboxes at present:

    1. getValue - main call, used to get the value(s) of a given property
    2. getQualifierValue - given: (1) a property; (2) its value; (3) a qualifier's propertyID, returns values which match
    3. getValueByQual gets the value of a property which has a qualifier with a given entity value
    4. getValueByLang gets the value of a property which has a qualifier P407("language of work or name") whose value has the given language code
    5. getValueByRefSource gets the value of a property which has a reference "stated in" (P248) whose value has the given entity-ID
    6. getPropOfProp if the value(s) of prop1 are of type "wikibase-item" then it returns the value(s) of prop2 of each of those wikibase-items
    7. getAwardCat if the item has values of P166 (award received), then it examines each of those awards for P2517 (category for recipients of this award) and it returns the corresponding category, with the item's P734 (family name) as sort key, or no sort key if there is no family name
    8. getIntersectCat for each value of the prop1 it fetches the value's main category and then each value of prop2, then it returns all of the categories representing the intersection of those properties
    9. getSumOfParts scans the property 'has part' (P527) for values matching a list, If the matched values have a qualifier 'quantity' (P1114), those quantities are summed and returned (but zero returns nil)
    10. getCoords - gets coordinates and passes them through {{Coord}}
    11. getPreferredValue - Deprecated but retained for backward compatibility. Use the |getValue|rank=best parameters instead.

    The obsolete call getSourcedValue has now been removed as it is redundant to getValue which can do the same job using the |onlysourced=true parameter (which is set by default).

    Utilities functions[edit source]

    1. getLink if there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns a link to the article with the Wikidata label as the displayed text. If there is no sitelink, it returns the label as plain text. If there is no label in the local language, it returns the entity-ID
    2. getAT (Article Title) If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns the sitelink as plain text, otherwise nothing
    3. getSiteLink gets the plain text link to an article on a given wiki
    4. getLabel returns the Wikidata label for the local language as plain text. If there is no label in the local language, it returns the entity-ID
    5. getAllLabels fetches the set of labels and formats it for display as wikitext
    6. labelorid returns the label with all wikitext removed, or the entity-ID if no label
    7. getDescription returns the article description for the Wikidata entity if the local parameter is "Wikidata".
    8. getAllDescriptions fetches the set of descriptions and formats it for display as wikitext
    9. getAliases returns the aliases for the entity in the current or given language
    10. getAllAliases fetches the set of aliases and formats it for display as wikitext
    11. pageId returns the connected Wikidata page id (entity-ID, Q-number) of the current page
    12. formatDate takes a datetime of the usual format from mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues and formats it according to the df (date format) and bc parameters
    13. formatNumber formats a number according to the supplied language code
    14. checkBlacklist returns true if the field is not blacklisted (i.e. allowed)
    15. emptyor returns nil if the parameter is just punctuation, whitespace or html tags, otherwise returns the argument unchanged
    16. getLang returns the MediaWiki language code or the full language name of the current content
    17. getItemLangCode looks for country (P17), then for that country's official language (P37), and returns its language code (P424)
    18. findLanguage returns (1) supplied language if valid; or (2) the user's set language; or (3) the language of the current wiki
    19. getQid returns (1) the entity-ID, if supplied; or (2) the entity ID of the "category's main topic (P301)"; or (3) the entity ID associated with the current page; or (4) nothing
    20. followQid given a list of properties, looks for each property in turn and returns the entity-ID of the first value that matches (optionally, returns all entity-IDs that match)
    21. getGlobe returns the entity-ID of the globe used in P625 (coordinate location), or nil if there isn't one
    22. getCommonsLink returns one of the following in order of preference: the Commons sitelink of the linked Wikidata item; the Commons sitelink of the topic's main category of the linked Wikidata item;
    23. siteID returns the root of the globalSiteID, e.g. "en" for "enwiki", "enwikisource", "en-gb", etc.
    24. projID same as siteID
    25. location scans from the current location upwards along the chain of higher-level locations, returning each one until it reaches a country
    26. examine returns a formatted dump of the given property
    27. url2 takes a parameter that is a proper url and formats it for use in an infobox; it accepts its own output as input
    28. getWebsite fetches the Official website (P856) and formats it for use in an infobox
    29. checkvalue looks through a property for a given entity-ID as its value and returns that entity-ID if found; otherwise nil
    30. checkValidity returns whether the first unnamed parameter represents a valid entity-id
    31. showNoLinks displays the article titles that should not be linked

    Examples of calls[edit source]

    {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |<PropertyID> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no> |noicon=<yes/no> |df=<dmy/mdy/y> |bc=<BC/BCE> |qual=<ALL/DATES/P999> |list=<ubl/hlist/prose> |linked=<yes/no> |<local parameter>}}
    
    {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getCoords |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |<local parameter>}}
    
    {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getQualifierValue |<PropertyID> |pval=<ID of target value for the property> |qual=<qualifier ID for that target value> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}
    
    {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByQual |<PropertyID> |qualID=<qualifier property ID to match> |qvalue=<QID of target value for the qualifier property> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}
    
    {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByLang |<PropertyID> |lang=<language code to match> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}
    


    Function getValue[edit source]

    Parameters to getValue[edit source]

    Name Alias Function Default
    (first unnamed) 1 The property-ID whose values are returned. Required.
    (second unnamed) 2 A locally supplied value that, if it is not empty, will be returned in preference to the value on Wikidata. empty
    qid The Q-number (entity-ID) of the entity that the property belongs to. If not supplied or empty, defaults to the associated Wikidata entry of the current page – uses mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage(). Item id for current page
    eid x= gives the same result as omitting the parameter. However, to provide some compatibility with other modules, using |eid= always returns an empty string, while omitting eid allows qid to work as normal. Item id for current page
    rank [Case insensitive] When set to best, returns preferred values if present, otherwise returns normal values. When set to preferred returns preferred values. When set to normal, returns normal values. When set to deprecated returns deprecated values. Any parameter value beginning with "b" is "best"; beginning with "p" is "preferred"; beginning with "n" is "normal"; beginning with "d" is deprecated. Multiple values are allowed: "p n d" would return all ranks. "Best" overrides the other flags. Other values are ignored and if no ranks are requested, preferred and normal are returned. preferred and normal
    qual A punctuation-separated list of property-IDs of qualifiers that are to be returned in parentheses after the property. Setting qual=ALL returns all qualifiers. Setting qual=DATES returns Template:Q and Template:Q with a date separator. none
    qualsonly qo A boolean which enables the display of just the qualifier(s), without the property value or parentheses. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    fetchwikidata fwd List of fields to fetch values from. ALL fetches all fields. A value of NONE or blank or omitting the parameter fetches no fields. none
    suppressfields spf List of fields which will never display. This will even force a local value in the field not to display. none
    name Name of the field. When encoding an infobox, this is the name that fetchwikidata and suppressfields will recognise. Required if fetchwikidata or suppressfields is specified (except when fetchwikidata=ALL). nil
    onlysourced osd A boolean which will filter out Wikidata values that are unsourced or only sourced to Wikipedia. This 2018 RFC requires that Wikidata values displayed in article infoboxes must be sourced. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. true
    df Date format: may be dmy (day before month) or mdy (month before day) or y (year alone). dmy
    qdf Date format of qualifiers. If omitted, defaults to parameter df, or "y" if df is also omitted. value of df or "y"
    bc Format of the BC/BCE suffix for dates. BCE
    plaindate pd String to modify formatting of dates. Setting "true"/"yes"/"1" disables adding "sourcing cirumstances" (P1480) and any links. Setting "adj" does the same but uses the adjectival form of the date. false
    linked A boolean that enables the link to a local page via its sitelink on Wikidata. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. true
    displaytext dt A string that overrides the displayed text of a linked item if it is non-empty. empty
    shortname sn A boolean that enables the use of shortname (P1813) instead of label for a linked item. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    uselabel uselbl A boolean that forces the display of the label instead of the disambiguated sitelink for a linked item. Labels are much more prone to vandalism that sitelinks. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    wdlinks wdl A boolean that enables the display of links to Wikidata when no local article exists. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    unitabbr uabbr A boolean that enables unit abbreviations for common units. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    convert conv A boolean that enables passing of quantities to Template:Cvt. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    showunits su A boolean that enables showing units for quantities. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. true
    scale A string that sets scaling for format of quantities. Values are: "a"=automatic; "0"=no scaling; "3"=thousand; "6"=million; "9"=billion; "12"=trillion. 0
    maxvals Sets the maximum number of values to be returned when multiple values are available. Setting it to 1 is useful where the returned string is used within another call, e.g. image. Values 0 and empty return all values. 0 (all)
    collapse Sets the maximum number of values to be returned before the content is auto-collapsed. Values 0 and empty allow all content to be displayed uncollapsed. 0 (all)
    linkprefix lp A link prefix that is prepended to the linked value when linked. Applies only to items that have articles and to strings (e.g. url). It triggers linking of strings. Any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed. empty
    linkpostfix A link postfix that is appended to the linked value when linked. Applies only to items that have articles and to strings (e.g. url). It triggers linking of strings. Any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed. empty
    prefix A prefix that is prepended to the displayed value of strings (e.g. url). Any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed. empty
    postfix A postfix that is appended to the displayed value of strings (e.g. url). Any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed. empty
    qlinkprefix qlp Qualifier link prefix (see linkprefix). empty
    qlinkpostfix Qualifier link postfix (see linkpostfix). empty
    qprefix Qualifier prefix (see prefix). empty
    qpostfix Qualifier postfix (see postfix). empty
    sorted A boolean which enables sorting of the values returned. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    qsorted A boolean which enables sorting of the qualifier values within each item returned. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false
    noicon A boolean which will suppress the trailing "edit at Wikidata" pen-icon. Useful for when the returned value is to be further processed. Values no, false and 0 are all false (i.e. shows the icon); anything else is true (i.e. suppresses the icon). false
    list The name of a template that the list of multiple values is then passed through. Examples include "cslist", "hlist", "ubl", "blist", "olist", "p-1". A special value, prose, produces "1, 2, 3 and 4". none
    sep Customises the string that is used to separate multiple returned values. Any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed. If nothing or an empty string is passed it is set to the default list separator (", " in English). ", "
    qsep Customises the string that is used to separate multiple returned qualifier values. Any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed. If nothing or an empty string is passed it is set to the default list separator (", " in English). ", "
    format Determines whether global coordinates should be rendered as degree/minute/second or as decimal degrees. Any value beginning "dec" (case insensitive) will render as decimal. Anything else will render as DMS. dms
    show noicon=true, all of these will be pure numbers in decimal degrees (signed: N and E as positive), which are intended for use in mapping templates, etc. Anything other value (or nothing) will render the usual coordinate values as DMS or decimal with "NSEW" qualifiers, etc. empty
    lang Allows an unlinked value to be returned in the chosen language. Takes a standard ISO language code recognised by MediaWiki. If not supplied or blank, the local language (or set language for multi-lingual wikis) is used as normal. local language
    parameterset ps Convenience parameter to allow commonly used sets of parameters to be specified with a single parameter: ps=1 gets a simple linked value wherever possible; ps=2 represents a plain text value. See Parameter sets
    linkredir Boolean to switch on or off the check for a redirect with the same name as the label when there is no sitelink on Wikidata for the value. Values no, false and 0 are all false; anything else is true. false

    Base parameters[edit source]

    • getValue can also take a named parameter |qid= which is the Wikidata ID for an article. This will not normally be used as omitting it defaults to the current article.
    • The property whose value is to be returned is passed in the first unnamed property and is required.
    • The second unnamed parameter, if supplied, will become the returned value and no call to Wikidata will be made.

    Whitelist and blacklist[edit source]

    • The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in the named parameter |name=, which is first checked against a blacklist of fields that are never to be displayed, (i.e. the call must return nil in all circumstances). If the field is not on the blacklist, it is then checked against a whitelist. If the name of the field matches, the call will return any locally supplied value if it is supplied as the second unnamed parameter, or the Wikidata value otherwise.
    • Specifying |fetchwikidata=ALL is a shortcut to return all fields that are not blacklisted.
    • The name is compulsory when the blacklist or whitelist is used, so the module returns nil if it is not supplied, other than when |fetchwikidata=ALL.
    • The blacklist is passed in the named parameter |suppressfields=
    • The whitelist is passed in the named parameter |fetchwikidata=

    Sourcing[edit source]

    The getValue function will accept a boolean parameter onlysourced which will suppress return of Wikidata values that are unsourced or only sourced to a Wikimedia project. The absence of the parameter, an empty parameter (|onlysourced=) and the empty string ("") all default to true (i.e. only referenced values are returned). The values no, false and 0 are treated as false (i.e. all values are returned); any other value is true (although |onlysourced=yes/no is recommended for readability).

    Link to Wikidata[edit source]

    The getValue function will accept a boolean parameter noicon which will suppress the trailing "edit at Wikidata" icon and link for cases when the returned value is to be further processed by the infobox (e.g. a url). The absence of the parameter or an empty parameter (|noicon=) default to false (i.e. the icon is added). The empty string ("") and the values no, false and 0 are treated as false; any other value is true (although |noicon=true is recommended for readability).

    Following a discussion at Module talk:WikidataIB #Visibility of pen icon, the pen icon is hidden from users who are not autoconfirmed. This means that most readers don't see the pen icon, and represents a balance between aesthetics and vandalism at Wikidata on the one hand, and the desire to encourage editing Wikidata on the other.

    Dates[edit source]

    In order to handle the requirement for dates in mdy, dmy or just year formats, getValue accepts a named parameter |df= that may take the values "dmy", "mdy", or "y" - default is "dmy".

    As an article may require either of suffixes BC and BCE, getValue accepts a named parameter |bc= that may take the values "BC", or "BCE" - default is "BCE". Some test cases are shown at Module talk:WikidataIB/testing #Calls to getValue for dates.

    Ranks[edit source]

    The |rank= parameter, when set to preferred, returns only preferred values; when set to normal, returns only normal values; when set to deprecated, returns only deprecated values. If the parameter is set to best, it returns preferred values if present, otherwise normal values. Any parameter value beginning with "p" is "preferred"; any parameter value beginning with "n" is "normal"; any parameter value beginning with "d" is "deprecated"; any parameter value beginning with "b" is "best". Combinations of values are allowed, e.g. |rank=p n returns all the preferred and normal values (which is the default), although "best" overrides any other parameters.

    Specific value-type handlers[edit source]

    The module has specific handlers for the following data types:

    1. Items that correspond to an article in some Wikipedia, called "wikibase-items". These will be linked to the corresponding (and disambiguated) article on English Wikipedia where possible.
    2. Items that represent dates. These may be centuries, years, years and months, or years, months and days.
    3. Items that represent Commons media, urls, external ids, or other sorts of plain text.
    4. Items that represent quantities. All of these may have an associated unit, or be dimensionless, and may have a range.
    5. Items that represent global coordinates. These will be in degrees of latitude and longitude and will have an associated precision.

    Items that represent other types of data are not handled at present.

    The third class of data types may be used with the parameters:

    • |prefix=, |postfix=, |linkprefix=, |linkpostfix=

    If you don't supply at least one of |linkprefix= or |linkpostfix=, then just |prefix= and |postfix= are used. For example, when getting the Template:Q in Template:Q:

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB/sandbox|getValue|P717|fetchwikidata=ALL|onlysourced=no |prefix="before " |postfix=" after" |qid=Q532127}}Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.

    Use double-quotes to enclose the parameter value if it has leading or trailing spaces (otherwise they are stripped out). If you supply |linkprefix= or |linkpostfix=, then all four parameters are used and a link is made for each value like this:

    • [[ linkprefix WikidataValue1 linkpostfix | prefix WikidataValue1 postfix]], [[ linkprefix WikidataValue2 linkpostfix | prefix WikidataValue2 postfix]], etc.

    That allows multiple links to be made to different sections of a list article, such as List of observatory codes. For example, when getting the Template:Q in Template:Q we can make the links:

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB/sandbox|getValue|P717|fetchwikidata=ALL|onlysourced=no |prefix= |postfix= |linkprefix="List of observatory codes#" |linkpostfix= |qid=Q532127}}Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.

    The parameters |prefix=, |postfix=, |linkprefix=, |linkpostfix= are also applied to wikibase-items if they are linked.

    Formatting multiple returned values[edit source]

    • |sorted=<yes|no> is a boolean passed to enable sorting of the values returned. No parameter, or an empty string, or "false", or "no", or "0" disables sorting. It's only a very dumb alphabetical sort and sorts linked values as "[[ ..."
    • |sep=<separator characters> allows the separator between multiple returned values to be defined. The default is ", " (comma plus normal space). If the separator has leading or trailing spaces, enclose it in double quotes (e.g. |sep=" - "). Any double quotes are stripped from the separator. The pipe character (|) must be escaped as {{!}}. For reasons of accessibility (see MOS:PLIST), do not use |sep=<br> for vertical unbulleted lists; use |list=ubl instead.
    • |list=<prose|cslist|hlist|ubl|blist|olist> allows multiple returned values to be displayed as a sentence with last two values separated by "and" (|list=prose), a horizontal comma-separated list (|list=cslist, not to be used in prose), a horizontal list (|list=hlist), a vertical unbulleted list (|list=ubl), a vertical bulleted list (|list=blist), or a vertical ordered list (|list=olist). These override the separator and do not display the 'pen icon' linked to "Edit at Wikidata".
    • |list=p-1 displays the last value. Combine with |maxvals=n to display the nth value.

    Limiting the returned values[edit source]

    Sometimes a property is expected to have a single value, such as Template:Q, but may have multiple values on Wikidata. Setting |maxvals=1 will limit the number of values returned to 1. Any other value is possible and functions as expected, but zero is treated as "no limit".

    Unlinking[edit source]

    A returned value that represents an article on the local wiki will be linked by default. This includes redirects, but not dab pages. Sometimes there is a need not to link that returned values and this may be accomplished by setting |linked=no.

    Unit abbreviations[edit source]

    When the returned value is a quantity, the name of the units in which it is expressed is appended. Infoboxes may wish to use abbreviations instead for common units. This can be done by setting |unitabbr=true.

    Qualifiers[edit source]

    A parameter |qual= may be supplied, which will return qualifiers of the required property, if they exist. If the value is set to a punctuation-separated list of property-IDs (e.g. P123, P456), then only the values of qualifiers with that property will be returned. If the value is set to |qual=ALL, then all of the qualifier values are returned. If the value is set to |qual=DATES then the Template:Q and the Template:Q of the property are returned with a date separator. In each case, any qualifier values returned follow the property value, and are enclosed in parentheses. If multiple qualifier values are returned, they will be separated by commas by default, although the separator can be changed by specifying |qsep= (which may be enclosed in double-quotes, which are stripped out, so that spaces can be included). Setting the parameter |qsorted=yes will sort the returned qualifier values alphanumerically.

    Short form of parameters[edit source]

    Some of the longer parameters may be abbreviated to make infobox designs more compact:

    • fwd → fetchwikidata
    • osd → onlysourced
    • spf → suppressfields
    • wdl → wdlinks

    Parameter sets[edit source]

    Generally, getValue has a set of defaults for its parameters that represent consensus decisions by editors. For example, |onlysourced= defaults to true so only Wikidata values that are sourced to something better than "Wikipedia" will be returned, and |fetchwikidata= defaults to none so nothing is returned until it is enabled by setting some field names or "ALL". This represents the fail-safe condition and allows infoboxes to be made Wikidata-capable without changing any article until enabled for that article.

    To simplify the use of getValue in other circumstances, common combinations of parameters can be specified with |parameterset= or its alias |ps= for convenience. Two combinations are implemented at present and these are:

    ps=1
    a common set of overrides to get a simple value, linked where possible:
    |rank         ="best"
    |fetchwikidata="ALL"
    |onlysourced  ="no"
    |noicon       ="true"
    
    ps=2
    a sort of raw value in plain text:
    |rank          = "best"
    |fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    |onlysourced   = "no"
    |noicon        = "true"
    |linked        = "no"
    |plaindate     = "true"
    

    Other sets could be created if there is a demand.

    Wrapper template[edit source]

    The template {{wdib}} can be used as a convenient wrapper for {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue}}.

    Other main functions[edit source]

    Function getPreferredValue[edit source]

    The getPreferredValue function works exactly like getValue, taking the same parameters, but if any values for a property have the preferred rank set, it will only return those values. This is now deprecated in favour of getValue|rank=best.

    Function getCoords[edit source]

    • getCoords can also take a named parameter |qid= which is the Wikidata ID for an article. This will not normally be used as omitting it defaults to the current article.
    • The first unnamed parameter, if supplied, will become the returned value and no call to Wikidata will be made.
    • The coordinates from Wikidata are parsed and passed to Template:Coord which returns the display as if it were called manually.
    • The blacklist of fields that are never to be displayed, and the whitelist are implemented in the same way as for getValue using |suppressfields= and |fetchwikidata=
    • The format parameter sets the display format to decimal or dms. Any value beginning with "dec" sets decimal; anything else sets dms.
    • The display parameter sets the display position to "inline", "title" or "inline, title". Default is nothing (so uses default for {{Coord}}, currently "inline").

    Function getQualifierValue[edit source]

    The getQualifierValue function is for use when we want to fetch the value of a qualifier. We need to know the property and the value of the property that the qualifier relates to. The parameters are:

    • The property ID passed in the unnamed parameter (or |1=)
    • The target value for that property in |pval=
    • The qualifier ID for that target value in |qual=
    • The same parameters to implement whitelisting and blacklisting of the property as in getValue
    • Optional boolean to specify whether only sourced values of the property are returned (defaults to "no") in |onlysourced=
    • Optional item ID for arbitrary access in |qid=
    • The same parameters to format output as in getValue

    Example of getQualifierValue[edit source]

    In Template:Q there is a property Template:Q, which has a value Template:Q. That has two qualifiers, Template:Q and Template:Q. To get the start date:

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getQualifierValue |qid=Q1513315 |P793 |pval=Q385378 |qual=P580 |name=xyz |fetchwikidata=ALL }}

    In South Pole Telescope it returns:

    Function getValueByQual[edit source]

    The getValueByQual function returns the value of a property which has a qualifier with a given entity value. The parameters are:

    • The property ID passed in the unnamed parameter (or |1=)
    • The property ID for a qualifier (or "ALL" or "DATES") in |qualID=
    • The Wikibase-entity ID of a value for that qualifier in |qvalue=
    • The same parameters to implement whitelisting and blacklisting of the property as in getValue
    • Optional boolean to specify whether only sourced values of the property are returned (defaults to "no") in |onlysourced=
    • Optional item ID for arbitrary access in |qid=
    • The same parameters to format output as in getValue

    Example of getValueByQual[edit source]

    In Template:Q there is a property Template:Q that has multiple values, each of which has a qualifier Template:Q. We can return the property value whose qualifier has the value Template:Q

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByQual |qid=Q10990 |P443 |qualID=P407 |qvalue=Q7979 |fwd=ALL |osd=no |noicon=true}}Script error: The module returned a nil value. It is supposed to return an export table.

    Function getValueByLang[edit source]

    The getValueByLang function returns the value of a property which has a qualifier Template:Q whose value has the given language code. The parameters are:

    • The property ID passed in the unnamed parameter (or |1=)
    • The Template:Q to match the language whose code is given by |lang=xx[-yy]. If no code is supplied, it uses the default language.
    • The same parameters to implement whitelisting and blacklisting of the property as in getValue
    • Optional boolean to specify whether only sourced values of the property are returned (defaults to "no") in |onlysourced=
    • Optional item ID for arbitrary access in |qid=
    • The same parameters to format output as in getValue

    Example of getValueByLang[edit source]

    In Template:Q there is a property Template:Q that has multiple values, each of which has a qualifier Template:Q. We can return the property value whose Template:Q qualifier value (a WD item) itself has the Template:Q property that is "ja", i.e, Template:Q

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByLang |qid=Q7565108 |P856 |lang=ja |fwd=ALL |osd=no |noicon=true}}

    If |lang= is unspecified, we can obtain the same value with the default language (here that is the Template:Q and its Template:Q is "en")

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValueByLang |qid=Q7565108 |P856 |fwd=ALL |osd=no |noicon=true}}

    Utility functions[edit source]

    Function getLink[edit source]

    getLink has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=

    If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns a link to the article with the Wikidata label as the displayed text. If there is no sitelink, it returns the label as plain text. If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.

    Wikidata: Template:Q and Template:Q
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLink |Q29016906}}Lua error at line 2674: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLink |Q3621491}}Lua error at line 2674: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

    Function getLabel[edit source]

    getLabel has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=

    It returns the Wikidata label in the local language for an item by the given qid. If there is no label in the local language, it returns the qid instead. Note that this is the label given to the Wikidata entry in the same language as the current Wiki, if the label exists.

    Wikidata: Template:Q and Template:Q
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q29016906}}Lua error at line 555: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q3621491}}Lua error at line 555: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q19805408}}Lua error at line 555: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

    Function label[edit source]

    label has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=

    It returns the Wikidata label in the local language for an item by the given qid or linked to the current page. If there is no label in the local language, it returns an empty string. Note that this is the label given to the Wikidata entry in the same language as the current Wiki, if the label exists.

    Wikidata: Template:Q and Template:Q
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |label |Q29016906}}Lua error at line 555: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |label |Q3621491}}Lua error at line 555: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |label |Q19805408}}Lua error at line 555: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

    Function getAT[edit source]

    getAT has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=

    If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns the sitelink as plain text, i.e. the article title. If there is no sitelink, it returns nothing. Note that this is the title of the article in the current Wikipedia, if the interlanguage link exists in the Wikidata entry.

    Wikidata: Template:Q and Template:Q
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getAT |Q29016906}}Lua error at line 2731: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getAT |Q3621491}}Lua error at line 2731: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

    Function getDescription[edit source]

    getDescription has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid= (it defaults to the associated qid of the current article if omitted). It has a local parameter passed as the first unnamed parameter. Any local parameter passed (other than "Wikidata" or "none") becomes the return value. It returns the article description for the Wikidata entity in plain text if the local parameter is "Wikidata". Nothing is returned if the description doesn't exist or "none" is passed as the local parameter.

    Wikidata: Template:Q and Template:Q
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getDescription |qid=Q29016906 |wikidata}}Lua error at line 2750: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getDescription |qid=Q29016906 |A painting}} → A painting
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getDescription |qid=Q29016906 |none}}
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getDescription |qid=Q3621491 |wikidata}}Lua error at line 2750: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getDescription |qid=Q3621491 |A profession}} → A profession
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getDescription |qid=Q3621491 |none}}

    Function formatDate[edit source]

    formatDate accepts a datetime of the usual format from mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues, like "1 August 30 BCE" as parameter 1 and formats it according to the df (date format) and bc parameters.

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |formatDate | 1 August 30 BCE |bc=BCE |df=dmy}} → 1 August 30 BCE
    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |formatDate | 1 August 30 BCE |bc=BC |df=mdy}} → August 1, 30 BC
    • df = "dmy" / "mdy" / "y" - default is "dmy"
    • bc = "BC" / "BCE" - default is "BCE"

    Function checkBlacklist[edit source]

    checkBlacklist allows a test to check whether a named field is allowed. It returns true if the field is not blacklisted (i.e. allowed) It returns false if the field is blacklisted (i.e. disallowed)

    Example:

    • {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=nationality |suppressfields=residence; nationality; citizenship}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}} → not blacklisted
    • {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=birth_place |suppressfields=residence; nationality; citizenship}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}} → not blacklisted

    Function emptyor[edit source]

    emptyor returns nil if its first unnamed argument is just punctuation, whitespace or html tags otherwise it returns the argument unchanged (including leading/trailing space).

    If the argument could contain "=", then it must be called explicitly:

    • | 1 = whatever-the-argument-is

    In that case, leading and trailing spaces are trimmed.

    It finds use in infoboxes where it can replace tests like:

    • {{#if: {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}} | <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> | }}

    with a form that uses just a single call to Wikidata:

    • {{#invoke |WikidataIB |emptyor |1= <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> }}

    Function labelorid[edit source]

    labelorid is a public function to expose the output of labelOrId().

    The Q-number (entity ID) is passed as |qid= or as an unnamed parameter.

    It returns the Wikidata label for that entity or the qid if no label exists.

    Function getQid[edit source]

    • getQid works with the current page and its associated Wikidata entry.
    • It returns qid, if supplied as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=;
    • failing that, the Wikidata entity ID of the "category's main topic (P301)", if it exists;
    • failing that, the Wikidata entity ID associated with the current page, if it exists;
    • otherwise, nothing

    Function examine[edit source]

    examine provides a dump of the entire property given in the first unnamed parameter (or in |pid= as a named alias) from the item given by the parameter 'qid', or from the item corresponding to the current page if qid is not supplied. Both parameters may be unnamed and given in any order.

    It works in a similar manner to the Dump function, but only loads a single claim, rather than the whole Wikidata entry.

    • Example: {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |qid=Q1396889 |P50}}

    There is a Template:Examine which acts as a wrapper for the call.

    • Example: {{examine |Q4048254 |P31}}

    Template:Examine

    Function url2[edit source]

    url2 takes a parameter url= that is a proper url and formats it for use in an infobox.

    Examples:

    1. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    2. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    3. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    4. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    5. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo

    Comparison with output of {{URL}}:

    1. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    2. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    3. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo
    4. REDIRECT w:Template:Nowiki template demo

    See also[edit source]

    Coding into an infobox[edit source]

    Typically, the getValue call will be invoked in an infobox definition, using appropriate template parameters. One simple implementation is given as an example in Template:Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox. As an illustration, the 'author' field in the infobox is coded like this:

    | label2  = Author{{#if:{{{authors|}}}|s}}
    |  data2  = {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P50 |name=author |fetchwikidata={{{fetchwikidata|}}} |suppressfields={{{suppressfields|}}} |{{{authors|{{{author|}}}}}} }}
    

    The property to be fetched is the first unnamed parameter. In this case it is Template:Q.

    The name of the field is passed in |name= and that name is checked against the blacklist and the whitelist. To always suppress the author field in a particular article, an editor will set |suppressfields=author in the infobox. The author field will then never be displayed.

    If the field is not blacklisted, then the infobox can be set to display a locally supplied value for author simply by setting |author=George Orwell, for example, in the infobox. It also accepts |authors=. If the name of the field is on the whitelist, e.g. |fetchwikidata=author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress, and the local value is not supplied, then the infobox will display the value retrieved from Wikidata. Any separators can be used, except | and {}.

    As a shorthand, |fetchwikidata=ALL will fetch all of the fields that are not blacklisted, as long as no local value is already provided in the article for a given field.

    Since Wikidata labels are normally lower case, the ucfirst function from Module:String2 can be used to capitalise the first letter of the returned text, e.g.

    • {{#invoke:String2 | ucfirst | {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P136 |name=genre |fetchwikidata=ALL |onlysourced=false}} }} in Template:Q produces:

    Example of calls in an infobox[edit source]

    Basic use of getValue:

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P000 |name=fieldname |qid={{{qid|}}} |fetchwikidata={{{fetchwikidata|}}} |onlysourced={{{onlysourced|}}} |{{{localparameter|}}} }}

    Full collection of parameters:

    • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P000 |name=fieldname |qid={{{qid|}}} |suppressfields={{{suppressfields|}}} |fetchwikidata={{{fetchwikidata|}}} |onlysourced={{{onlysourced|}}} |noicon={{{noicon|}}} |wdl={{{wikidatalink|}}} |df={{dateformat|}} |bc={{{bc|}}} |prefix= |postfix= |linkprefix= |linkpostfix= |sorted={{{sorted|}}} |sep={{{separator|}}} |list={{listtype|}}} |{{{localparameter|}}} }}

    Any of the parameters can, of course, be fixed for a given field in an infobox, rather than taking the parameter supplied to the infobox, which will affect all fields. For example, one field may set |list=hlist where a series of short words is expected; whereas another field could use |list=ubl where an unbulleted vertical list of several words on each line is required.

    Coordinates[edit source]

    The getCoords call will display the output of Template:Coord when supplied with the coordinates returned from Wikidata. It can be coded like this:

    |label20 = Coordinates
    | data20 = {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getCoords |name=coordinates |suppressfields={{{suppressfields|}}} |fetchwikidata={{{fetchwikidata|}}} |{{{coordinates|}}} }}
    

    An example is Template:Infobox biosphere reserve

    {{Infobox biosphere reserve
    | fetchwikidata = ALL
    }}
    

    Displays coordinates in the usual positions when used in an article where Wikidata has coordinates.

    Upgrading existing infoboxes[edit source]

    Since the parameter |fetchwikidata= is needed for any Wikidata functionality, an existing infobox may be replaced by an infobox incorporating these calls without any change whatsoever to any article. Each article using the new infobox can later be enabled by supplying |fetchwikidata=ALL, or a list of required fields for that article. At that point, the onus is on the editor enabling the functionality to check that no unwanted fields are now being displayed. If so, they can be added to a blacklist for the article by setting |suppressfields= to the list of unwanted fields.

    Verifiability[edit source]

    Where it will always be essential for a particular field to only contain values that are referenced, use getValue, making sure that |onlysourced= is not set to 'false', '0' or 'no'. By default it will exclude values that are unsourced or only sourced to a Wikipedia, thus making the job of checking easier at the article level. If unsourced data is acceptable (!), set |onlysourced=no. As it is beyond my wit to produce an automated mechanism that knows whether an existing source is reliable or not in a given context, that job must still be performed at the article level by an editor familiar with the subject. It should always be done when first enabling Wikidata for that article.

    Helper templates[edit source]

    Template:If then show
    tests whether the first unnamed parameter is not an empty string and returns it if it isn't. Otherwise it returns the second unnamed parameter. Optional third and fourth unnamed parameters provide a prefix and a suffix for the first parameter when returned. Useful when the first parameter is a call to Wikidata.
    Template:Ifnoteq then show
    tests whether the first unnamed parameter is equal to the second unnamed parameter and returns the third unnamed parameter if it does. Otherwise it returns the first unnamed parameter. This is useful when the first parameter is a {{#invoke: of a Lua module that returns a value for which a specific exception is required.
    Template:If then wikilink
    tests whether the first unnamed parameter is not an empty string and if it isn't, it returns the parameter formatted as piped wiki-link using an optional namespace prefix.
    Template:Formatter link
    takes an external identifier code as |code= and uses a formatter url as |url= to construct a link to the external resource, which uses the code as display.
    Template:Emptyor
    tests a piece of text to ascertain whether it's effectively empty or contains some text. If the unnamed parameter consists only of html tags, punctuation (e.g. wiki markup) and whitespace, then Emptyor returns nothing; otherwise it returns the parameter unchanged. Wrapper for p.emptyor function.

    Example of use: Infobox book[edit source]

    This section is taken from Template:Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox/doc.

    No Wikidata[edit source]

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | suppressfields =
    | fetchwikidata  =
    | name           = Animal Farm
    | title_orig     = Animal Farm: A Fairy Story
    | image          = Animal Farm - 1st edition.jpg
    | image_size     = 200px
    | caption        = First edition cover
    | author         = [[George Orwell]]
    | country        = United Kingdom
    | language       = English
    | genre          = Political satire
    }}
    

    Works as a non-aware infobox: only locally supplied parameters are displayed.

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | name           = Animal Farm
    | title_orig     = Animal Farm: A Fairy Story
    | image          = Animal Farm - 1st edition.jpg
    | image_size     = 200px
    | caption        = First edition cover
    | author         = [[George Orwell]]
    | country        = United Kingdom
    | language       = English
    | genre          = Political satire
    }}
    

    The blacklist and whitelist can be omitted if unused

    All Wikidata[edit source]

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
    }}
    

    Fetches the author, publication date, number of pages, Dewey index, and Library of Congress catalogue number values from Wikidata.

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | fetchwikidata  = ALL
    }}
    

    As shorthand, the |fetchwikidata= parameter can be set to ALL to fetch all available fields. Any field can be suppressed by naming it in |suppressfields=, or overridden by supplying a local value.

    Never display genre[edit source]

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | suppressfields = genre
    | fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
    }}
    

    The genre field will always be suppressed, even if a local value is supplied.

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | suppressfields = genre
    | fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
    | genre          = Political satire
    }}
    

    Local override[edit source]

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
    | genre          = Political satire
    }}
    

    The genre field is set to display "Political satire", no matter what is stored in Wikidata.

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | fetchwikidata  = ALL
    | genre          = Novel
    }}
    

    The genre field is set to display "Novel", no matter what is stored in Wikidata.

    Don't fetch genre[edit source]

    {{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
    | suppressfields = 
    | fetchwikidata  = author; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
    }}
    

    The genre field will not be fetched from Wikidata. Only the author, publication date, number of pages, Dewey index, and Library of Congress catalogue number are imported. A local value for genre will display.

    Exporting the module[edit source]

    WikidataIB has been developed to run on any language wiki (or Wikimedia project) with a minimum of modification. An optional sub-module Module:WikidataIB/i18n may be created to replace the values for error messages, ordinal suffixes etc. as shown in the local i18n definitions in the module. Although the same result can be arrived at by directly editing those values in WikidataIB, using the sub-module will allow an updated version of WikidataIB to directly replace the older module without having to re-edit the i18n definitions.

    Linked items[edit source]

    If the target Wiki has a convention that certain items are not normally linked (see en:Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Linking #What generally should not be linked for an example), then a sub-module Module:WikidataIB/nolinks can be created to list items that should not be linked, using the English Wikipedia sub-module as an exemplar.

    Italic titles[edit source]

    If the target Wiki has a convention that certain works should be italicised or quoted (see en:Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Text formatting #Names and titles for an example), then a sub-module Module:WikidataIB/titleformats can be created to list items that should be italicised or quoted, using the English Wikipedia sub-module as an exemplar.

    Complex date[edit source]

    Most of the output from the module will use the local language (or any user-specified one on multi-lingual wikis) where the sitelink or label exists on Wikidata. However, dates are more complicated and not handled perfectly in all languages. To solve this, WikidataIB uses Module:Complex date – developed on Commons by Template:U – which allows expansion to support a wider variety of languages. As a result, it is necessary to install Complex date and its dependencies alongside WikidataIB when installing on another Wikimedia project.

    Complex date dependencies[edit source]

    Module:Complex_date relies on the following modules:

    Unless otherwise noted, the authoritative version of each module can be found on Commons although the versions on English Wikipedia are usually kept in sync.

    See also[edit source]

    Tracking categories[edit source]

    Template:Wikidata infoboxes


    -- Version: 2021-02-06
    -- Module to implement use of a blacklist and whitelist for infobox fields
    -- Can take a named parameter |qid which is the Wikidata ID for the article
    -- if not supplied, it will use the Wikidata ID associated with the current page.
    -- Fields in blacklist are never to be displayed, i.e. module must return nil in all circumstances
    -- Fields in whitelist return local value if it exists or the Wikidata value otherwise
    -- The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in named parameter |name
    -- The name is compulsory when blacklist or whitelist is used,
    -- so the module returns nil if it is not supplied.
    -- blacklist is passed in named parameter |suppressfields (or |spf)
    -- whitelist is passed in named parameter |fetchwikidata (or |fwd)
    
    local p = {}
    
    local cdate -- initialise as nil and only load _complex_date function if needed
    -- Module:Complex date is loaded lazily and has the following dependencies:
    -- Module:Calendar
    -- Module:ISOdate
    -- Module:DateI18n
    -- Module:No globals
    -- Module:I18n/complex date
    -- Module:Ordinal
    -- Module:I18n/ordinal
    -- Module:Yesno
    -- Module:Formatnum
    -- Module:Linguistic
    --
    -- The following, taken from https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Wikibase/DataModel#Dates_and_times,
    -- is needed to use Module:Complex date which seemingly requires date precision as a string.
    -- It would work better if only the authors of the mediawiki page could spell 'millennium'.
    local dp = {
    	[6] = "millennium",
    	[7] = "century",
    	[8] = "decade",
    	[9] = "year",
    	[10] = "month",
    	[11] = "day",
    }
    
    local i18n =
    {
    	["errors"] =
    	{
    		["property-not-found"] = "Property not found.",
    		["No property supplied"] = "No property supplied",
    		["entity-not-found"] = "Wikidata entity not found.",
    		["unknown-claim-type"] = "Unknown claim type.",
    		["unknown-entity-type"] = "Unknown entity type.",
    		["qualifier-not-found"] = "Qualifier not found.",
    		["site-not-found"] = "Wikimedia project not found.",
    		["labels-not-found"] = "No labels found.",
    		["descriptions-not-found"] = "No descriptions found.",
    		["aliases-not-found"] = "No aliases found.",
    		["unknown-datetime-format"] = "Unknown datetime format.",
    		["local-article-not-found"] = "Article is available on Wikidata, but not on Wikipedia",
    		["dab-page"] = " (dab)",
    	},
    	["months"] =
    	{
    		"January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June",
    		"July", "August", "September", "October", "November", "December"
    	},
    	["century"] = "century",
    	["BC"] = "BC",
    	["BCE"] = "BCE",
    	["ordinal"] =
    	{
    		[1] = "st",
    		[2] = "nd",
    		[3] = "rd",
    		["default"] = "th"
    	},
    	["filespace"] = "File",
    	["Unknown"] = "Unknown",
    	["NaN"] = "Not a number",
    	-- set the following to the name of a tracking category,
    	-- e.g. "[[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]", or "" to disable:
    	["missinginfocat"] = "[[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]",
    	["editonwikidata"] = "Edit this on Wikidata",
    	["latestdatequalifier"] = function (date) return "before " .. date end,
    	-- some languages, e.g. Bosnian use a period as a suffix after each number in a date
    	["datenumbersuffix"] = "",
    	["list separator"] = ", ",
    	["multipliers"] = {
    		[0]  = "",
    		[3]  = " thousand",
    		[6]  = " million",
    		[9]  = " billion",
    		[12] = " trillion",
    	}
    }
    -- This allows an internationisation module to override the above table
    if 'en' ~= mw.getContentLanguage():getCode() then
    	require("Module:i18n").loadI18n("Module:WikidataIB/i18n", i18n)
    end
    
    -- This piece of html implements a collapsible container. Check the classes exist on your wiki.
    local collapsediv = '<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%; overflow:auto;" data-expandtext="{{int:show}}" data-collapsetext="{{int:hide}}">'
    
    -- Some items should not be linked.
    -- Each wiki can create a list of those in Module:WikidataIB/nolinks
    -- It should return a table called itemsindex, containing true for each item not to be linked
    local donotlink = {}
    local nolinks_exists, nolinks = pcall(mw.loadData, "Module:WikidataIB/nolinks")
    if nolinks_exists then
    	donotlink = nolinks.itemsindex
    end
    
    -- To satisfy Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Titles, certain types of items are italicised, and others are quoted.
    -- The submodule [[Module:WikidataIB/titleformats]] lists the entity-ids used in 'instance of' (P31),
    -- which allows this module to identify the values that should be formatted.
    -- WikidataIB/titleformats exports a table p.formats, which is indexed by entity-id, and contains the value " or ''
    local formats = {}
    local titleformats_exists, titleformats = pcall(mw.loadData, "Module:WikidataIB/titleformats")
    if titleformats_exists then
    	formats = titleformats.formats
    end
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Private functions
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- makeOrdinal needs to be internationalised along with the above:
    -- takes cardinal number as a numeric and returns the ordinal as a string
    -- we need three exceptions in English for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 21st, .. 31st, etc.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local makeOrdinal = function(cardinal)
    	local ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal.default
    	if cardinal % 10 == 1 then
    		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[1]
    	elseif cardinal % 10 == 2 then
    		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[2]
    	elseif cardinal % 10 == 3 then
    		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[3]
    	end
    	-- In English, 1, 21, 31, etc. use 'st', but 11, 111, etc. use 'th'
    	-- similarly for 12 and 13, etc.
    	if (cardinal % 100 == 11) or (cardinal % 100 == 12) or (cardinal % 100 == 13) then
    		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal.default
    	end
    	return tostring(cardinal) .. ordsuffix
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- findLang takes a "langcode" parameter if supplied and valid
    -- otherwise it tries to create it from the user's set language ({{int:lang}})
    -- failing that it uses the wiki's content language.
    -- It returns a language object
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local findLang = function(langcode)
    	local langobj
    	langcode = mw.text.trim(langcode or "")
    	if mw.language.isKnownLanguageTag(langcode) then
    		langobj = mw.language.new( langcode )
    	else
    		langcode = mw.getCurrentFrame():preprocess( '{{int:lang}}' )
    		if mw.language.isKnownLanguageTag(langcode) then
    			langobj = mw.language.new( langcode )
    		else
    			langobj = mw.language.getContentLanguage()
    		end
    	end
    	return langobj
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- _getItemLangCode takes a qid parameter (using the current page's qid if blank)
    -- If the item for that qid has property country (P17) it looks at the first preferred value
    -- If the country has an official language (P37), it looks at the first preferred value
    -- If that official language has a language code (P424), it returns the first preferred value
    -- Otherwise it returns nothing.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local _getItemLangCode = function(qid)
    	qid = mw.text.trim(qid or ""):upper()
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return end
    	local prop17 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P17")[1]
    	if not prop17 or prop17.mainsnak.snaktype ~= "value" then return end
    	local qid17 = prop17.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    	local prop37 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid17, "P37")[1]
    	if not prop37 or prop37.mainsnak.snaktype ~= "value" then return end
    	local qid37 = prop37.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    	local prop424 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid37, "P424")[1]
    	if not prop424 or prop424.mainsnak.snaktype ~= "value" then return end
    	return prop424.mainsnak.datavalue.value
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- roundto takes a number (x)
    -- and returns it rounded to (sf) significant figures
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local roundto = function(x, sf)
    	if x == 0 then return 0 end
    	local s = 1
    	if x < 0 then
    		x = -x
    		s = -1
    	end
    	if sf < 1 then sf = 1 end
    	local p = 10 ^ (math.floor(math.log10(x)) - sf + 1)
    	x = math.floor(x / p + 0.5) * p * s
    	-- if it's integral, cast to an integer:
    	if x == math.floor(x) then x = math.floor(x) end
    	return x
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- decimalToDMS takes a decimal degrees (x) with precision (p)
    -- and returns degrees/minutes/seconds according to the precision
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local decimalToDMS = function(x, p)
    	-- if p is not supplied, use a precision around 0.1 seconds
    	if not tonumber(p) then p = 1e-4 end
    	local d = math.floor(x)
    	local ms = (x - d) * 60
    	if p > 0.5 then -- precision is > 1/2 a degree
    		if ms > 30 then d = d + 1 end
    		ms = 0
    	end
    	local m = math.floor(ms)
    	local s = (ms - m) * 60
    	if p > 0.008 then -- precision is > 1/2 a minute
    		if s > 30 then m = m +1 end
    		s = 0
    	elseif p > 0.00014 then -- precision is > 1/2 a second
    		s = math.floor(s + 0.5)
    	elseif p > 0.000014 then -- precision is > 1/20 second
    		s = math.floor(10 * s + 0.5) / 10
    	elseif p > 0.0000014 then -- precision is > 1/200 second
    		s = math.floor(100 * s + 0.5) / 100
    	else -- cap it at 3 dec places for now
    		s = math.floor(1000 * s + 0.5) / 1000
    	end
    	return d, m, s
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- decimalPrecision takes a decimal (x) with precision (p)
    -- and returns x rounded approximately to the given precision
    -- precision should be between 1 and 1e-6, preferably a power of 10.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local decimalPrecision = function(x, p)
    	local s = 1
    	if x < 0 then
    		x = -x
    		s = -1
    	end
    	-- if p is not supplied, pick an arbitrary precision
    	if not tonumber(p) then p = 1e-4
    	elseif p > 1 then p = 1
    	elseif p < 1e-6 then p = 1e-6
    	else p = 10 ^ math.floor(math.log10(p))
    	end
    	x = math.floor(x / p + 0.5) * p * s
    	-- if it's integral, cast to an integer:
    	if  x == math.floor(x) then x = math.floor(x) end
    	-- if it's less than 1e-4, it will be in exponent form, so return a string with 6dp
    	-- 9e-5 becomes 0.000090
    	if math.abs(x) < 1e-4 then x = string.format("%f", x) end
    	return x
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- formatDate takes a datetime of the usual format from mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues
    -- like "1 August 30 BCE" as parameter 1
    -- and formats it according to the df (date format) and bc parameters
    -- df = ["dmy" / "mdy" / "y"] default will be "dmy"
    -- bc = ["BC" / "BCE"] default will be "BCE"
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local format_Date = function(datetime, dateformat, bc)
    	local datetime = datetime or "1 August 30 BCE" -- in case of nil value
    	-- chop off multiple vales and/or any hours, mins, etc.
    	-- keep anything before punctuation - we just want a single date:
    	local dateval = string.match( datetime, "[%w ]+")
    
    	local dateformat = string.lower(dateformat or "dmy") -- default to dmy
    
    	local bc = string.upper(bc or "") -- can't use nil for bc
    	-- we only want to accept two possibilities: BC or default to BCE
    	if bc == "BC" then
    		bc = "&nbsp;" .. i18n["BC"] -- prepend a non-breaking space.
    	else
    		bc = "&nbsp;" .. i18n["BCE"]
    	end
    
    	local postchrist = true -- start by assuming no BCE
    	local dateparts = {}
    	for word in string.gmatch(dateval, "%w+") do
    		if word == "BCE" or word == "BC" then -- *** internationalise later ***
    			postchrist = false
    		else
    			-- we'll keep the parts that are not 'BCE' in a table
    			dateparts[#dateparts + 1] = word
    		end
    	end
    	if postchrist then bc = "" end -- set AD dates to no suffix *** internationalise later ***
    
    	local sep = "&nbsp;" -- separator is nbsp
    	local fdate = table.concat(dateparts, sep) -- set formatted date to same order as input
    
    	-- if we have day month year, check dateformat
    	if #dateparts == 3 then
    		if dateformat == "y" then
    			fdate = dateparts[3]
    		elseif dateformat == "mdy" then
    			fdate = dateparts[2] .. sep .. dateparts[1] .. "," .. sep .. dateparts[3]
    		end
    	elseif #dateparts == 2 and dateformat == "y" then
    		fdate = dateparts[2]
    	end
    
    	return fdate .. bc
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- dateFormat is the handler for properties that are of type "time"
    -- It takes timestamp, precision (6 to 11 per mediawiki), dateformat (y/dmy/mdy), BC format (BC/BCE),
    -- a plaindate switch (yes/no/adj) to en/disable "sourcing circumstances"/use adjectival form,
    -- any qualifiers for the property, the language, and any adjective to use like 'before'.
    -- It passes the date through the "complex date" function
    -- and returns a string with the internatonalised date formatted according to preferences.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: findLang(); cdate(); dp[]
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local dateFormat = function(timestamp, dprec, df, bcf, pd, qualifiers, lang, adj, model)
    	-- output formatting according to preferences (y/dmy/mdy/ymd)
    	df = (df or ""):lower()
    	-- if ymd is required, return the part of the timestamp in YYYY-MM-DD form
    	-- but apply Year zero#Astronomers fix: 1 BC = 0000; 2 BC = -0001; etc.
    	if df == "ymd" then
    		if timestamp:sub(1,1) == "+" then
    			return timestamp:sub(2,11)
    		else
    			local yr = tonumber(timestamp:sub(2,5)) - 1
    			yr = ("000" .. yr):sub(-4)
    			if yr ~= "0000" then yr = "-" .. yr end
    			return yr .. timestamp:sub(6,11)
    		end
    	end
    	-- A year can be stored like this: "+1872-00-00T00:00:00Z",
    	-- which is processed here as if it were the day before "+1872-01-01T00:00:00Z",
    	-- and that's the last day of 1871, so the year is wrong.
    	-- So fix the month 0, day 0 timestamp to become 1 January instead:
    	timestamp = timestamp:gsub("%-00%-00T", "-01-01T")
    	-- just in case date precision is missing
    	dprec = dprec or 11
    	-- override more precise dates if required dateformat is year alone:
    	if df == "y" and dprec > 9 then dprec = 9 end
    	-- complex date only deals with precisions from 6 to 11, so clip range
    	dprec = dprec>11 and 11 or dprec
    	dprec = dprec<6 and 6 or dprec
    	-- BC format is "BC" or "BCE"
    	bcf = (bcf or ""):upper()
    	-- plaindate only needs the first letter (y/n/a)
    	pd = (pd or ""):sub(1,1):lower()
    	if pd == "" or pd == "n" or pd == "f" or pd == "0" then pd = false end
    	-- in case language isn't passed
    	lang = lang or findLang().code
    	-- set adj as empty if nil
    	adj = adj or ""
    	-- extract the day, month, year from the timestamp
    	local bc = timestamp:sub(1, 1)=="-" and "BC" or ""
    	local year, month, day = timestamp:match("[+-](%d*)-(%d*)-(%d*)T")
    	local iso = tonumber(year) -- if year is missing, let it throw an error
    	-- this will adjust the date format to be compatible with cdate
    	-- possible formats are Y, YY, YYY0, YYYY, YYYY-MM, YYYY-MM-DD
    	if dprec == 6 then iso = math.floor( (iso - 1) / 1000 ) + 1 end
    	if dprec == 7 then iso = math.floor( (iso - 1) / 100 ) + 1 end
    	if dprec == 8 then iso = math.floor( iso / 10 ) .. "0" end
    	if dprec == 10 then iso = year .. "-" .. month end
    	if dprec == 11 then iso = year .. "-" .. month .. "-" .. day end
    	-- add "circa" (Q5727902) from "sourcing circumstances" (P1480)
    	local sc = not pd and qualifiers and qualifiers.P1480
    	if sc then
    		for k1, v1 in pairs(sc) do
    			if v1.datavalue and v1.datavalue.value.id == "Q5727902" then
    				adj = "circa"
    				break
    			end
    		end
    	end
    	-- deal with Julian dates:
    	-- no point in saying that dates before 1582 are Julian - they are by default
    	-- doesn't make sense for dates less precise than year
    	-- we can suppress it by setting |plaindate, e.g. for use in constructing categories.
    	local calendarmodel = ""
    	if tonumber(year) > 1582
    		and dprec > 8
    		and not pd
    		and model == "http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q1985786" then
    		calendarmodel = "julian"
    	end
    	if not cdate then
    		cdate = require("Module:Complex date")._complex_date
    	end
    	local fdate = cdate(calendarmodel, adj, tostring(iso), dp[dprec], bc, "", "", "", "", lang, 1)
    	-- this may have QuickStatements info appended to it in a div, so remove that
    	fdate = fdate:gsub(' <div style="display: none;">[^<]*</div>', '')
    	-- it may also be returned wrapped in a microformat, so remove that
    	fdate = fdate:gsub("<[^>]*>", "")
    	-- there may be leading zeros that we should remove
    	fdate = fdate:gsub("^0*", "")
    	-- if a plain date is required, then remove any links (like BC linked)
    	if pd then
    		fdate = fdate:gsub("%[%[.*|", ""):gsub("]]", "")
    	end
    	-- if 'circa', use the abbreviated form *** internationalise later ***
    	fdate = fdate:gsub('circa ', '<abbr title="circa">c.</abbr>&nbsp;')
    	-- deal with BC/BCE
    	if bcf == "BCE" then
    		fdate = fdate:gsub('BC', 'BCE')
    	end
    	-- deal with mdy format
    	if df == "mdy" then
    		fdate = fdate:gsub("(%d+) (%w+) (%d+)", "%2 %1, %3")
    	end
    	-- deal with adjectival form *** internationalise later ***
    	if pd == "a" then
    		fdate = fdate:gsub(' century', '-century')
    	end
    	return fdate
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- parseParam takes a (string) parameter, e.g. from the list of frame arguments,
    -- and makes "false", "no", and "0" into the (boolean) false
    -- it makes the empty string and nil into the (boolean) value passed as default
    -- allowing the parameter to be true or false by default.
    -- It returns a boolean.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local parseParam = function(param, default)
    	if type(param) == "boolean" then param = tostring(param) end
    	if param and param ~= "" then
    		param = param:lower()
    		if (param == "false") or (param:sub(1,1) == "n") or (param == "0") then
    			return false
    		else
    			return true
    		end
    	else
    		return default
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- _getSitelink takes the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- It takes an optional parameter |wiki= to determine which wiki is to be checked for a sitelink
    -- If the parameter is blank, then it uses the local wiki.
    -- If there is a sitelink to an article available, it returns the plain text link to the article
    -- If there is no sitelink, it returns nil.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local _getSitelink = function(qid, wiki)
    	qid = (qid or ""):upper()
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return nil end
    	wiki = wiki or ""
    	local sitelink
    	if wiki == "" then
    		sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(qid)
    	else
    		sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(qid, wiki)
    	end
    	return sitelink
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- _getCommonslink takes an optional qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- It returns one of the following in order of preference:
    -- 	the Commons sitelink of the Wikidata entity - but not if onlycat=true and it's not a category;
    -- 	the Commons sitelink of the topic's main category of the Wikidata entity;
    -- 	the Commons category of the Wikidata entity - unless fallback=false.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getSitelink(); parseParam()
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local _getCommonslink = function(qid, onlycat, fallback)
    	qid = (qid or ""):upper()
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return nil end
    	onlycat = parseParam(onlycat, false)
    	if fallback == "" then fallback = nil end
    	local sitelink = _getSitelink(qid, "commonswiki")
    	if onlycat and sitelink and sitelink:sub(1,9) ~= "Category:" then sitelink = nil end
    	if not sitelink then
    		-- check for topic's main category
    		local prop910 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P910")[1]
    		if prop910 then
    			local tmcid = prop910.mainsnak.datavalue and prop910.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    			sitelink = _getSitelink(tmcid, "commonswiki")
    		end
    		if not sitelink then
    			-- check for list's main category
    			local prop1754 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P1754")[1]
    			if prop1754 then
    				local tmcid = prop1754.mainsnak.datavalue and prop1754.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    				sitelink = _getSitelink(tmcid, "commonswiki")
    			end
    		end
    	end
    	if not sitelink and fallback then
    		-- check for Commons category (string value)
    		local prop373 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P373")[1]
    		if prop373 then
    			sitelink = prop373.mainsnak.datavalue and prop373.mainsnak.datavalue.value
    			if sitelink then sitelink = "Category:" .. sitelink end
    		end
    	end
    	return sitelink
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- The label in a Wikidata item is subject to vulnerabilities
    -- that an attacker might try to exploit.
    -- It needs to be 'sanitised' by removing any wikitext before use.
    -- If it doesn't exist, return the id for the item
    -- a second (boolean) value is also returned, value is true when the label exists
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local labelOrId = function(id, lang)
    	if lang == "default" then lang = findLang().code end
    	local label
    	if lang then
    		label = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(id, lang)
    	else
    		label = mw.wikibase.getLabel(id)
    	end
    	if label then
    		return mw.text.nowiki(label), true
    	else
    		return id, false
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- linkedItem takes an entity-id and returns a string, linked if possible.
    -- This is the handler for "wikibase-item". Preferences:
    -- 1. Display linked disambiguated sitelink if it exists
    -- 2. Display linked label if it is a redirect
    -- 3. TBA: Display an inter-language link for the label if it exists other than in default language
    -- 4. Display unlinked label if it exists
    -- 5. Display entity-id for now to indicate a label could be provided
    -- dtxt is text to be used instead of label, or nil.
    -- shortname is boolean switch to use P1813 (short name) instead of label if true.
    -- lang is the current language code.
    -- uselbl is boolean switch to force display of the label instead of the sitelink (default: false)
    -- linkredir is boolean switch to allow linking to a redirect (default: false)
    -- formatvalue is boolean switch to allow formatting as italics or quoted (default: false)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: labelOrId(); donotlink[]
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local linkedItem = function(id, args)
    	local lprefix = (args.lp or args.lprefix or args.linkprefix or ""):gsub('"', '') -- toughen against nil values passed
    	local lpostfix = (args.lpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local prefix = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local postfix = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local dtxt = args.dtxt
    	local shortname = args.shortname
    	local lang = args.lang or "en" -- fallback to default if missing
    	local uselbl = args.uselabel or args.uselbl
    	uselbl = parseParam(uselbl, false)
    	local linkredir = args.linkredir
    	linkredir = parseParam(linkredir, false)
    	local formatvalue = args.formatvalue or args.fv
    	formatvalue = parseParam(formatvalue, false)
    	-- see if item might need italics or quotes
    	local fmt = ""
    	if next(formats) and formatvalue then
    		for k, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P31") ) do
    			if v.mainsnak.datavalue and formats[v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id] then
    				fmt = formats[v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id]
    				break -- pick the first match
    			end
    		end
    	end
    	local disp
    	local sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(id)
    	local label, islabel
    	if dtxt then
    		label, islabel = dtxt, true
    	elseif shortname then
    		-- see if there is a shortname in our language, and set label to it
    		for k, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P1813") ) do
    			if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == lang then
    				label, islabel = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text, true
    				break
    			end -- test for language match
    		end -- loop through values of short name
    		-- if we have no label set, then there was no shortname available
    		if not islabel then
    			label, islabel = labelOrId(id)
    			shortname = false
    		end
    	else
    		label, islabel = labelOrId(id)
    	end
    	if mw.site.siteName ~= "Wikimedia Commons" then
    		if sitelink then
    			if not (dtxt or shortname) then
    				-- if sitelink and label are the same except for case, no need to process further
    				if sitelink:lower() ~= label:lower() then
    					-- strip any namespace or dab from the sitelink
    					local pos = sitelink:find(":") or 0
    					local slink = sitelink
    					if pos > 0 then
    						local pfx = sitelink:sub(1,pos-1)
    						if mw.site.namespaces[pfx] then -- that prefix is a valid namespace, so remove it
    							slink = sitelink:sub(pos+1)
    						end
    					end
    					-- remove stuff after commas or inside parentheses - ie. dabs
    					slink = slink:gsub("%s%(.+%)$", ""):gsub(",.+$", "")
    					-- if uselbl is false, use sitelink instead of label
    					if not uselbl then
    						--  use slink as display, preserving label case - find("^%u") is true for 1st char uppercase
    						if label:find("^%u") then
    							label = slink:gsub("^(%l)", string.upper)
    						else
    							label = slink:gsub("^(%u)", string.lower)
    						end
    					end
    				end
    			end
    			if donotlink[label] then
    				disp = prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix
    			else
    				disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. sitelink .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix .. "]]"
    			end
    		elseif islabel then
    			-- no sitelink, label exists, so check if a redirect with that title exists, if linkredir is true
    			-- display plain label by default
    			disp = prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix
    			if linkredir then
    				local artitle = mw.title.new(label, 0) -- only nil if label has invalid chars
    				if not donotlink[label] and artitle and artitle.redirectTarget then
    					-- there's a redirect with the same title as the label, so let's link to that
    					disp = "[[".. lprefix .. label .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. fmt .. label .. fmt .. postfix .. "]]"
    				end
    			end -- test if article title exists as redirect on current Wiki
    		else
    			-- no sitelink and no label, so return whatever was returned from labelOrId for now
    			-- add tracking category [[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]
    			-- for enwiki, just return the tracking category
    			if mw.wikibase.getGlobalSiteId() == "enwiki" then
    				disp = i18n.missinginfocat
    			else
    				disp = prefix .. label .. postfix .. i18n.missinginfocat
    			end
    		end
    	else
    		local ccat = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P373")[1]
    		if ccat and ccat.mainsnak.datavalue then
    			ccat = ccat.mainsnak.datavalue.value
    			disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. "Category:" .. ccat .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
    		elseif sitelink then
    			-- this asumes that if a sitelink exists, then a label also exists
    			disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. sitelink .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
    		else
    			-- no sitelink and no Commons cat, so return label from labelOrId for now
    			disp = prefix .. label .. postfix
    		end
    	end
    	return disp
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- sourced takes a table representing a statement that may or may not have references
    -- it looks for a reference sourced to something not containing the word "wikipedia"
    -- it returns a boolean = true if it finds a sourced reference.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local sourced = function(claim)
    	if claim.references then
    		for kr, vr in pairs(claim.references) do
    			local ref = mw.wikibase.renderSnaks(vr.snaks)
    			if not ref:find("Wiki") then
    				return true
    			end
    		end
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- setRanks takes a flag (parameter passed) that requests the values to return
    -- "b[est]" returns preferred if available, otherwise normal
    -- "p[referred]" returns preferred
    -- "n[ormal]" returns normal
    -- "d[eprecated]" returns deprecated
    -- multiple values are allowed, e.g. "preferred normal" (which is the default)
    -- "best" will override the other flags, and set p and n
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local setRanks = function(rank)
    	rank = (rank or ""):lower()
    	-- if nothing passed, return preferred and normal
    	-- if rank == "" then rank = "p n" end
    	local ranks = {}
    	for w in string.gmatch(rank, "%a+") do
    		w = w:sub(1,1)
    		if w == "b" or w == "p" or w == "n" or w == "d" then
    			ranks[w] = true
    		end
    	end
    	-- check if "best" is requested or no ranks requested; and if so, set preferred and normal
    	if ranks.b or not next(ranks) then
    		ranks.p = true
    		ranks.n = true
    	end
    	return ranks
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- parseInput processes the Q-id , the blacklist and the whitelist
    -- if an input parameter is supplied, it returns that and ends the call.
    -- it returns (1) either the qid or nil indicating whether or not the call should continue
    -- and (2) a table containing all of the statements for the propertyID and relevant Qid
    -- if "best" ranks are requested, it returns those instead of all non-deprecated ranks
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local parseInput = function(frame, input_parm, property_id)
    	-- There may be a local parameter supplied, if it's blank, set it to nil
    	input_parm = mw.text.trim(input_parm or "")
    	if input_parm == "" then input_parm = nil end
    
    	-- return nil if Wikidata is not available
    	if not mw.wikibase then return false, input_parm end
    
    	local args = frame.args
    
    	-- can take a named parameter |qid which is the Wikidata ID for the article.
    	-- if it's not supplied, use the id for the current page
    	local qid = args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	-- if there's no Wikidata item for the current page return nil
    	if not qid then return false, input_parm end
    
    	-- The blacklist is passed in named parameter |suppressfields
    	local blacklist = args.suppressfields or args.spf or ""
    
    	-- The whitelist is passed in named parameter |fetchwikidata
    	local whitelist = args.fetchwikidata or args.fwd or ""
    	if whitelist == "" then whitelist = "NONE" end
    
    	-- The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in named parameter |name
    	local fieldname = args.name or ""
    
    	if blacklist ~= "" then
    		-- The name is compulsory when blacklist is used, so return nil if it is not supplied
    		if fieldname == "" then return false, nil end
    		-- If this field is on the blacklist, then return nil
    		if blacklist:find(fieldname) then return false, nil end
    	end
    
    	-- If we got this far then we're not on the blacklist
    	-- The blacklist overrides any locally supplied parameter as well
    	-- If a non-blank input parameter was supplied return it
    	if input_parm then return false, input_parm end
    
    	-- We can filter out non-valid properties
    	if property_id:sub(1,1):upper() ~="P" or property_id == "P0" then return false, nil end
    
    	-- Otherwise see if this field is on the whitelist:
    	-- needs a bit more logic because find will return its second value = 0 if fieldname is ""
    	-- but nil if fieldname not found on whitelist
    	local _, found = whitelist:find(fieldname)
    	found = ((found or 0) > 0)
    	if whitelist ~= 'ALL' and (whitelist:upper() == "NONE" or not found) then
    		return false, nil
    	end
    
    	-- See what's on Wikidata (the call always returns a table, but it may be empty):
    	local props = {}
    	if args.reqranks.b then
    		props = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, property_id)
    	else
    		props = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, property_id)
    	end
    	if props[1] then
    		return qid, props
    	end
    	-- no property on Wikidata
    	return false, nil
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- createicon assembles the "Edit at Wikidata" pen icon.
    -- It returns a wikitext string inside a span class="penicon"
    -- if entityID is nil or empty, the ID associated with current page is used
    -- langcode and propertyID may be nil or empty
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: i18n[];
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local createicon = function(langcode, entityID, propertyID)
    	langcode = langcode or ""
    	if not entityID or entityID == "" then entityID= mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	propertyID = propertyID or ""
    	local icon = "&nbsp;<span class='penicon autoconfirmed-show'>[["
    	-- "&nbsp;<span data-bridge-edit-flow='overwrite' class='penicon'>[[" -> enable Wikidata Bridge
    	.. i18n["filespace"]
    	.. ":OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg |frameless |text-top |10px |alt="
    	.. i18n["editonwikidata"]
    	.. "|link=https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/" .. entityID
    	if langcode ~= "" then icon = icon .. "?uselang=" .. langcode end
    	if propertyID ~= "" then icon = icon .. "#" .. propertyID end
    	icon = icon .. "|" .. i18n["editonwikidata"] .. "]]</span>"
    	return icon
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- assembleoutput takes the sequence table containing the property values
    -- and formats it according to switches given. It returns a string or nil.
    -- It uses the entityID (and optionally propertyID) to create a link in the pen icon.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local assembleoutput = function(out, args, entityID, propertyID)
    
    	-- sorted is a boolean passed to enable sorting of the values returned
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    	-- if "false" or "no" or "0" is passed set it false
    	local sorted = parseParam(args.sorted, false)
    
    	-- noicon is a boolean passed to suppress the trailing "edit at Wikidata" icon
    	-- for use when the value is processed further by the infobox
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    	-- if "false" or "no" or "0" is passed set it false
    	local noic = parseParam(args.noicon, false)
    
    	-- list is the name of a template that a list of multiple values is passed through
    	-- examples include "hlist" and "ubl"
    	-- setting it to "prose" produces something like "1, 2, 3, and 4"
    	local list = args.list or ""
    
    	-- sep is a string that is used to separate multiple returned values
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it to the default
    	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    	-- e.g. |sep=" - "
    	local sepdefault = i18n["list separator"]
    	local separator = args.sep or ""
    	separator = string.gsub(separator, '"', '')
    	if separator == "" then
    		separator = sepdefault
    	end
    
    	-- collapse is a number that determines the maximum number of returned values
    	-- before the output is collapsed.
    	-- Zero or not a number result in no collapsing (default becomes 0).
    	local collapse = tonumber(args.collapse) or 0
    
    	-- replacetext (rt) is a string that is returned instead of any non-empty Wikidata value
    	-- this is useful for tracking and debugging
    	local replacetext = mw.text.trim(args.rt or args.replacetext or "")
    
    	-- if there's anything to return, then return a list
    	-- comma-separated by default, but may be specified by the sep parameter
    	-- optionally specify a hlist or ubl or a prose list, etc.
    	local strout
    	if #out > 0 then
    		if sorted then table.sort(out) end
    		-- if there's something to display and a pen icon is wanted, add it the end of the last value
    		local hasdisplay = false
    		for i, v in ipairs(out) do
    			if v ~= i18n.missinginfocat then
    				hasdisplay = true
    				break
    			end
    		end
    		if not noic and hasdisplay then
    			out[#out] = out[#out] .. createicon(args.langobj.code, entityID, propertyID)
    		end
    		if list == "" then
    			strout = table.concat(out, separator)
    		elseif list:lower() == "prose" then
    			strout = mw.text.listToText( out )
    		else
    			strout = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = list, args = out}
    		end
    		if collapse >0 and #out > collapse then
    			strout = collapsediv .. strout .. "</div>"
    		end
    	else
    		strout = nil -- no items had valid reference
    	end
    	if replacetext ~= "" and strout then strout = replacetext end
    	return strout
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- rendersnak takes a table (propval) containing the information stored on one property value
    -- and returns the value as a string and its language if monolingual text.
    -- It handles data of type:
    --		wikibase-item
    --		time
    --		string, url, commonsMedia, external-id
    --		quantity
    --		globe-coordinate
    --		monolingualtext
    -- It also requires linked, the link/pre/postfixes, uabbr, and the arguments passed from frame.
    -- The optional filter parameter allows quantities to be be filtered by unit Qid.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam(); labelOrId(); i18n[]; dateFormat();
    -- roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS(); linkedItem();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local rendersnak = function(propval, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
    	lpre = lpre or ""
    	lpost = lpost or ""
    	pre = pre or ""
    	post = post or ""
    	args.lang = args.lang or findLang().code
    	-- allow values to display a fixed text instead of label
    	local dtxt = args.displaytext or args.dt
    	if dtxt == "" then dtxt = nil end
    	-- switch to use display of short name (P1813) instead of label
    	local shortname = args.shortname or args.sn
    	shortname = parseParam(shortname, false)
    	local snak = propval.mainsnak or propval
    	local dtype = snak.datatype
    	local dv = snak.datavalue
    	dv = dv and dv.value
    	-- value and monolingual text language code returned
    	local val, mlt
    	if propval.rank and not args.reqranks[propval.rank:sub(1, 1)] then
    		-- val is nil: value has a rank that isn't requested
    		------------------------------------
    	elseif snak.snaktype == "somevalue" then -- value is unknown
    		val = i18n["Unknown"]
    		------------------------------------
    	elseif snak.snaktype == "novalue" then -- value is none
    		-- val = "No value" -- don't return anything
    		------------------------------------
    	elseif dtype == "wikibase-item" then -- data type is a wikibase item:
    		-- it's wiki-linked value, so output as link if enabled and possible
    		local qnumber = dv.id
    		if linked then
    			val = linkedItem(qnumber, args)
    		else -- no link wanted so check for display-text, otherwise test for lang code
    			local label, islabel
    			if dtxt then
    				label = dtxt
    			else
    				label, islabel = labelOrId(qnumber)
    				local langlabel = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(qnumber, args.lang)
    				if langlabel then
    					label = mw.text.nowiki( langlabel )
    				end
    			end
    			val = pre .. label .. post
    		end -- test for link required
    		------------------------------------
    	elseif dtype == "time" then -- data type is time:
    		-- time is in timestamp format
    		-- date precision is integer per mediawiki
    		-- output formatting according to preferences (y/dmy/mdy)
    		-- BC format as BC or BCE
    		-- plaindate is passed to disable looking for "sourcing cirumstances"
    		-- or to set the adjectival form
    		-- qualifiers (if any) is a nested table or nil
    		-- lang is given, or user language, or site language
    		--
    		-- Here we can check whether args.df has a value
    		-- If not, use code from Module:Sandbox/RexxS/Getdateformat to set it from templates like {{Use mdy dates}}
    		val = dateFormat(dv.time, dv.precision, args.df, args.bc, args.pd, propval.qualifiers, args.lang, "", dv.calendarmodel)
    		------------------------------------
    	-- data types which are strings:
    	elseif dtype == "commonsMedia" or dtype == "external-id" or dtype == "string" or dtype == "url" then
    		-- commonsMedia or external-id or string or url
    		-- all have mainsnak.datavalue.value as string
    		if (lpre == "" or lpre == ":") and lpost == "" then
    			-- don't link if no linkpre/postfix or linkprefix is just ":"
    			val = pre .. dv .. post
    		elseif dtype == "external-id" then
    			val = "[" .. lpre .. dv .. lpost .. " " .. pre .. dv .. post .. "]"
    		else
    			val = "[[" .. lpre .. dv .. lpost .. "|" .. pre .. dv .. post .. "]]"
    		end -- check for link requested (i.e. either linkprefix or linkpostfix exists)
    		------------------------------------
    	-- data types which are quantities:
    	elseif dtype == "quantity" then
    		-- quantities have mainsnak.datavalue.value.amount and mainsnak.datavalue.value.unit
    		-- the unit is of the form http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q829073
    		--
    		-- implement a switch to turn on/off numerical formatting later
    		local fnum = true
    		--
    		-- a switch to turn on/off conversions - only for en-wiki
    		local conv = parseParam(args.conv or args.convert, false)
    		-- if we have conversions, we won't have formatted numbers or scales
    		if conv then
    			uabbr = true
    			fnum = false
    			args.scale = "0"
    		end
    		--
    		-- a switch to turn on/off showing units, default is true
    		local showunits = parseParam(args.su or args.showunits, true)
    		--
    		-- convert amount to a number
    		local amount = tonumber(dv.amount) or i18n["NaN"]
    		--
    		-- scale factor for millions, billions, etc.
    		local sc = tostring(args.scale or ""):sub(1,1):lower()
    		local scale
    		if sc == "a" then
    			-- automatic scaling
    			if amount > 1e15 then
    				scale = 12
    			elseif amount > 1e12 then
    				scale = 9
    			elseif amount > 1e9 then
    				scale = 6
    			elseif amount > 1e6 then
    				scale = 3
    			else
    				scale = 0
    			end
    		else
    			scale = tonumber(args.scale) or 0
    			if scale < 0 or scale > 12 then scale = 0 end
    			scale = math.floor(scale/3) * 3
    		end
    		local factor = 10^scale
    		amount = amount / factor
    		-- ranges:
    		local range = ""
    		-- check if upper and/or lower bounds are given and significant
    		local upb = tonumber(dv.upperBound)
    		local lowb = tonumber(dv.lowerBound)
    		if upb and lowb then
    			-- differences rounded to 2 sig fig:
    			local posdif = roundto(upb - amount, 2) / factor
    			local negdif = roundto(amount - lowb, 2) / factor
    			upb, lowb = amount + posdif, amount - negdif
    			-- round scaled numbers to integers or 4 sig fig
    			if (scale > 0 or sc == "a") then
    				if amount < 1e4 then
    					amount = roundto(amount, 4)
    				else
    					amount = math.floor(amount + 0.5)
    				end
    			end
    			if fnum then amount = args.langobj:formatNum( amount ) end
    			if posdif ~= negdif then
    				-- non-symmetrical
    				range = " +" .. posdif .. " -" .. negdif
    			elseif posdif ~= 0 then
    				-- symmetrical and non-zero
    				range = " ±" .. posdif
    			else
    				-- otherwise range is zero, so leave it as ""
    			end
    		else
    			-- round scaled numbers to integers or 4 sig fig
    			if (scale > 0 or sc == "a") then
    				if amount < 1e4 then
    					amount = roundto(amount, 4)
    				else
    					amount = math.floor(amount + 0.5)
    				end
    			end
    			if fnum then amount = args.langobj:formatNum( amount ) end
    		end
    		-- unit names and symbols:
    		-- extract the qid in the form 'Qnnn' from the value.unit url
    		-- and then fetch the label from that - or symbol if unitabbr is true
    		local unit = ""
    		local usep = ""
    		local usym = ""
    		local unitqid = string.match( dv.unit, "(Q%d+)" )
    		if filter and unitqid ~= filter then return nil end
    		if unitqid and showunits then
    			local uname = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(unitqid, args.lang) or ""
    			if uname ~= "" then usep, unit = " ", uname end
    			if uabbr then
    				-- see if there's a unit symbol (P5061)
    				local unitsymbols = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(unitqid, "P5061")
    				-- construct fallback table, add local lang and multiple languages
    				local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( args.lang )
    				table.insert( fbtbl, 1, args.lang )
    				table.insert( fbtbl, 1, "mul" )
    				local found = false
    				for idx1, us in ipairs(unitsymbols) do
    					for idx2, fblang in ipairs(fbtbl) do
    						if us.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == fblang then
    							usym = us.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text
    							found = true
    							break
    						end
    					if found then break end
    					end -- loop through fallback table
    				end -- loop through values of P5061
    				if found then usep, unit = "&nbsp;", usym end
    			end
    		end
    		-- format display:
    		if conv then
    			if range == "" then
    				val = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "cvt", args = {amount, unit}}
    			else
    				val = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "cvt", args = {lowb, "to", upb, unit}}
    			end
    		elseif unit == "$" or unit == "£" then
    			val = unit .. amount .. range .. i18n.multipliers[scale]
    		else
    			val = amount .. range .. i18n.multipliers[scale] .. usep .. unit
    		end
    		------------------------------------
    	-- datatypes which are global coordinates:
    	elseif dtype == "globe-coordinate" then
    		-- 'display' parameter defaults to "inline, title" *** unused for now ***
    		-- local disp = args.display or ""
    		-- if disp == "" then disp = "inline, title" end
    		--
    		-- format parameter switches from deg/min/sec to decimal degrees
    		-- default is deg/min/sec -- decimal degrees needs |format = dec
    		local form = (args.format or ""):lower():sub(1,3)
    		if form ~= "dec" then form = "dms" end -- not needed for now
    		--
    		-- show parameter allows just the latitude, or just the longitude, or both
    		-- to be returned as a signed decimal, ignoring the format parameter.
    		local show = (args.show or ""):lower()
    		if show ~= "longlat" then show = show:sub(1,3) end
    		--
    		local lat, long, prec = dv.latitude, dv.longitude, dv.precision
    		if show == "lat" then
    			val = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
    		elseif show == "lon" then
    			val = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
    		elseif show == "longlat" then
    			val = decimalPrecision(long, prec) .. ", " .. decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
    		else
    			local ns = "N"
    			local ew = "E"
    			if lat < 0 then
    				ns = "S"
    				lat = - lat
    			end
    			if long < 0 then
    				ew = "W"
    				long = - long
    			end
    			if form == "dec" then
    				lat = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
    				long = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
    				val = lat .. "°" .. ns .. " " .. long ..  "°" .. ew
    			else
    				local latdeg, latmin, latsec = decimalToDMS(lat, prec)
    				local longdeg, longmin, longsec = decimalToDMS(long, prec)
    
    				if latsec == 0 and longsec == 0 then
    					if latmin == 0 and longmin == 0 then
    						val = latdeg .. "°" .. ns .. " " .. longdeg ..  "°" .. ew
    					else
    						val = latdeg .. "°" .. latmin .. "′" .. ns .. " "
    						val = val .. longdeg .. "°".. longmin .. "′" .. ew
    					end
    				else
    					val = latdeg .. "°" .. latmin .. "′" .. latsec .. "″" .. ns .. " "
    					val = val .. longdeg .. "°" .. longmin .. "′" .. longsec .. "″" .. ew
    				end
    			end
    		end
    		------------------------------------
    	elseif dtype == "monolingualtext" then -- data type is Monolingual text:
    		-- has mainsnak.datavalue.value as a table containing language/text pairs
    		-- collect all the values in 'out' and languages in 'mlt' and process them later
    		val = pre .. dv.text .. post
    		mlt = dv.language
    		------------------------------------
    	else
    		-- some other data type so write a specific handler
    		val = "unknown data type: " .. dtype
    	end -- of datatype/unknown value/sourced check
    	return val, mlt
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- propertyvalueandquals takes a property object, the arguments passed from frame,
    -- and a qualifier propertyID.
    -- It returns a sequence (table) of values representing the values of that property
    -- and qualifiers that match the qualifierID if supplied.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam(); sourced(); labelOrId(); i18n.latestdatequalifier(); format_Date();
    -- makeOrdinal(); roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS(); assembleoutput();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local function propertyvalueandquals(objproperty, args, qualID)
    	-- needs this style of declaration because it's re-entrant
    
    	-- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return only values sourced to other than Wikipedia
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    
    	-- linked is a a boolean that enables the link to a local page via sitelink
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    	local linked = parseParam(args.linked, true)
    
    	-- prefix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    	-- this is prefixed to each value
    	-- useful when when multiple values are returned
    	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    	local prefix = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    
    	-- postfix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    	-- this is postfixed to each value
    	-- useful when when multiple values are returned
    	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    	local postfix = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    
    	-- linkprefix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    	-- this creates a link and is then prefixed to each value
    	-- useful when when multiple values are returned and indirect links are needed
    	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    	local lprefix = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    
    	-- linkpostfix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
    	-- this is postfixed to each value when linking is enabled with lprefix
    	-- useful when when multiple values are returned
    	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
    	local lpostfix = (args.linkpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    
    	-- wdlinks is a boolean passed to enable links to Wikidata when no article exists
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    	local wdl = parseParam(args.wdlinks or args.wdl, false)
    
    	-- unitabbr is a boolean passed to enable unit abbreviations for common units
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    	local uabbr = parseParam(args.unitabbr or args.uabbr, false)
    
    	-- qualsonly is a boolean passed to return just the qualifiers
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
    	local qualsonly = parseParam(args.qualsonly or args.qo, false)
    
    	-- maxvals is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a number
    	-- this determines how many items may be returned when multiple values are available
    	-- setting it = 1 is useful where the returned string is used within another call, e.g. image
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    
    	-- pd (plain date) is a string: yes/true/1 | no/false/0 | adj
    	-- to disable/enable "sourcing cirumstances" or use adjectival form for the plain date
    	local pd = args.plaindate or args.pd or "no"
    	args.pd = pd
    
    	-- allow qualifiers to have a different date format; default to year unless qualsonly is set
    	args.qdf = args.qdf or args.qualifierdateformat or args.df or (not qualsonly and "y")
    
    	local lang = args.lang or findLang().code
    
        -- qualID is a string list of wanted qualifiers or "ALL"
        qualID = qualID or ""
        -- capitalise list of wanted qualifiers and substitute "DATES"
        qualID = qualID:upper():gsub("DATES", "P580, P582")
        local allflag = (qualID == "ALL")
        -- create table of wanted qualifiers as key
        local qwanted = {}
        -- create sequence of wanted qualifiers
        local qorder = {}
        for q in mw.text.gsplit(qualID, "%p") do -- split at punctuation and iterate
            local qtrim = mw.text.trim(q)
            if qtrim ~= "" then
                qwanted[mw.text.trim(q)] = true
                qorder[#qorder+1] = qtrim
            end
        end
        -- qsep is the output separator for rendering qualifier list
        local qsep = (args.qsep or ""):gsub('"', '')
        -- qargs are the arguments to supply to assembleoutput()
        local qargs = {
            ["osd"]         = "false",
            ["linked"]      = tostring(linked),
            ["prefix"]      = args.qprefix,
            ["postfix"]     = args.qpostfix,
            ["linkprefix"]  = args.qlinkprefix or args.qlp,
            ["linkpostfix"] = args.qlinkpostfix,
            ["wdl"]         = "false",
            ["unitabbr"]    = tostring(uabbr),
            ["maxvals"]     = 0,
            ["sorted"]      = tostring(args.qsorted),
            ["noicon"]      = "true",
            ["list"]        = args.qlist,
            ["sep"]         = qsep,
            ["langobj"]     = args.langobj,
            ["lang"]        = args.langobj.code,
            ["df"]          = args.qdf,
            ["sn"]          = parseParam(args.qsn or args.qshortname, false),
        }
    
    	-- all proper values of a Wikidata property will be the same type as the first
    	-- qualifiers don't have a mainsnak, properties do
    	local datatype = objproperty[1].datatype or objproperty[1].mainsnak.datatype
    
    	-- out[] holds the a list of returned values for this property
    	-- mlt[] holds the language code if the datatype is monolingual text
    	local out = {}
    	local mlt = {}
    
    	for k, v in ipairs(objproperty) do
    		local hasvalue = true
    		if (onlysrc and not sourced(v)) then
    			-- no value: it isn't sourced when onlysourced=true
    			hasvalue = false
    		else
    			local val, lcode = rendersnak(v, args, linked, lprefix, lpostfix, prefix, postfix, uabbr)
    			if not val then
    				hasvalue = false -- rank doesn't match
    			elseif qualsonly and qualID then
    				-- suppress value returned: only qualifiers are requested
    			else
    				out[#out+1], mlt[#out+1] = val, lcode
    			end
    		end
    
    		-- See if qualifiers are to be returned:
    		local snak = v.mainsnak or v
    		if hasvalue and v.qualifiers and qualID ~= "" and snak.snaktype~="novalue" then
                -- collect all wanted qualifier values returned in qlist, indexed by propertyID
    			local qlist = {}
    			local timestart, timeend = "", ""
                -- loop through qualifiers
                for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
                    if allflag or qwanted[k1] then
                        if k1 == "P1326" then
                            local ts = v1[1].datavalue.value.time
                            local dp = v1[1].datavalue.value.precision
                            qlist[k1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.qdf, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "before")
                        elseif k1 == "P1319" then
                            local ts = v1[1].datavalue.value.time
                            local dp = v1[1].datavalue.value.precision
                            qlist[k1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.qdf, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "after")
                        elseif k1 == "P580" then
                            timestart = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)[1] or "" -- treat only one start time as valid
                        elseif k1 == "P582" then
                            timeend = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)[1] or "" -- treat only one end time as valid
                        else
                            local q = assembleoutput(propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs), qargs)
                            -- we already deal with circa via 'sourcing circumstances' if the datatype was time
                            -- circa may be either linked or unlinked *** internationalise later ***
                            if datatype ~= "time" or q ~= "circa" and not (type(q) == "string" and q:find("circa]]")) then
                                qlist[k1] = q
                            end
                        end
                    end -- of test for wanted
                end -- of loop through qualifiers
                -- set date separator
    			local t = timestart .. timeend
    			-- *** internationalise date separators later ***
    			local dsep = "&ndash;"
    			if t:find("%s") or t:find("&nbsp;") then dsep = " &ndash; " end
                -- set the order for the list of qualifiers returned; start time and end time go last
    			if next(qlist) then
                    local qlistout = {}
                    if allflag then
                        for k2, v2 in pairs(qlist) do
                            qlistout[#qlistout+1] = v2
                        end
                    else
                        for i2, v2 in ipairs(qorder) do
                            qlistout[#qlistout+1] = qlist[v2]
                        end
                    end
                    if t ~= "" then
                        qlistout[#qlistout+1] = timestart .. dsep .. timeend
                    end
    				local qstr = assembleoutput(qlistout, qargs)
    				if qualsonly then
    					out[#out+1] = qstr
    				else
    					out[#out] = out[#out] .. " (" .. qstr .. ")"
    				end
    			elseif t ~= "" then
    				if qualsonly then
    					if timestart == "" then
    						out[#out+1] = timeend
    					elseif timeend == "" then
    						out[#out+1] = timestart
    					else
    						out[#out+1] = timestart .. dsep .. timeend
    					end
    				else
    					out[#out] = out[#out] .. " (" .. timestart .. dsep .. timeend .. ")"
    				end
    			end
    		end -- of test for qualifiers wanted
    
    		if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    	end -- of for each value loop
    
    	-- we need to pick one value to return if the datatype was "monolingualtext"
    	-- if there's only one value, use that
    	-- otherwise look through the fallback languages for a match
    	if datatype == "monolingualtext" and #out >1 then
    		lang = mw.text.split( lang, '-', true )[1]
    		local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( lang )
    		table.insert( fbtbl, 1, lang )
    		local bestval = ""
    		local found = false
    		for idx1, lang1 in ipairs(fbtbl) do
    			for idx2, lang2 in ipairs(mlt) do
    				if (lang1 == lang2) and not found then
    					bestval = out[idx2]
    					found = true
    					break
    				end
    			end -- loop through values of property
    		end -- loop through fallback languages
    		if found then
    			-- replace output table with a table containing the best value
    			out = { bestval }
    		else
    			-- more than one value and none of them on the list of fallback languages
    			-- sod it, just give them the first one
    			out = { out[1] }
    		end
    	end
    	return out
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Common code for p.getValueByQual and p.getValueByLang
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local _getvaluebyqual = function(frame, qualID, checkvalue)
    
    	-- The property ID that will have a qualifier is the first unnamed parameter
    	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    	if propertyID == "" then return "no property supplied" end
    
    	if qualID == "" then return "no qualifier supplied" end
    
    	-- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return property values
    	-- only when property values are sourced to something other than Wikipedia
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    	-- if "false" or "no" or 0 is passed set it false
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)
    
    	-- set the requested ranks flags
    	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    
    	-- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
    	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    
    	local args = frame.args
    
    	-- check for locally supplied parameter in second unnamed parameter
    	-- success means no local parameter and the property exists
    	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, args[2], propertyID)
    
    	local linked = parseParam(args.linked, true)
    	local lpre = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local lpost = (args.linkpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local pre = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local post = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	local uabbr = parseParam(args.unitabbr or args.uabbr, false)
    	local filter = (args.unit or ""):upper()
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    	if filter == "" then filter = nil end
    
    	if qid then
    		local out = {}
    		-- Scan through the values of the property
    		-- we want something like property is "pronunciation audio (P443)" in propertyID
    		-- with a qualifier like "language of work or name (P407)" in qualID
    		-- whose value has the required ID, like "British English (Q7979)", in qval
    		for k1, v1 in ipairs(props) do
    			if v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
    				-- check if it has the right qualifier
    				local v1q = v1.qualifiers
    				if v1q and v1q[qualID] then
    					if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
    						-- if we've got this far, we have a (sourced) claim with qualifiers
    						-- so see if matches the required value
    						-- We'll only deal with wikibase-items and strings for now
    						if v1q[qualID][1].datatype == "wikibase-item" then
    							if checkvalue(v1q[qualID][1].datavalue.value.id) then
    								out[#out + 1] = rendersnak(v1, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
    							end
    						elseif v1q[qualID][1].datatype == "string" then
    							if checkvalue(v1q[qualID][1].datavalue.value) then
    								out[#out + 1] = rendersnak(v1, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
    							end
    						end
    					end -- of check for sourced
    				end -- of check for matching required value and has qualifiers
    			else
    				return nil
    			end -- of check for string
    			if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    		end -- of loop through values of propertyID
    		return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
    	else
    		return props -- either local parameter or nothing
    	end -- of test for success
    	return nil
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- _location takes Q-id and follows P276 (location)
    -- or P131 (located in the administrative territorial entity) or P706 (located on terrain feature)
    -- from the initial item to higher level territories/locations until it reaches the highest.
    -- An optional boolean, 'first', determines whether the first item is returned (default: false).
    -- An optional boolean 'skip' toggles the display to skip to the last item (default: false).
    -- It returns a table containing the locations - linked where possible, except for the highest.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: findLang(); labelOrId(); linkedItem
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local _location = function(qid, first, skip)
    	first = parseParam(first, false)
    	skip = parseParam(skip, false)
    	local locs = {"P276", "P131", "P706"}
    	local out = {}
    	local langcode = findLang():getCode()
    	local finished = false
    	local count = 0
    	local prevqid = "Q0"
    	repeat
    		local prop
    		for i1, v1 in ipairs(locs) do
    			local proptbl = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, v1)
    			if #proptbl > 1 then
    				-- there is more than one higher location
    				local prevP131, prevP131id
    				if prevqid ~= "Q0" then
    					prevP131 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(prevqid, "P131")[1]
    					prevP131id = prevP131
    					and prevP131.mainsnak.datavalue
    					and prevP131.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    				end
    				for i2, v2 in ipairs(proptbl) do
    					local parttbl = v2.qualifiers and v2.qualifiers.P518
    					if parttbl then
    						-- this higher location has qualifier 'applies to part' (P518)
    						for i3, v3 in ipairs(parttbl) do
    							if v3.snaktype == "value" and v3.datavalue.value.id == prevqid then
    								-- it has a value equal to the previous location
    								prop = proptbl[i2]
    								break
    							end -- of test for matching last location
    						end -- of loop through values of 'applies to part'
    					else
    						-- there's no qualifier 'applies to part' (P518)
    						-- so check if the previous location had a P131 that matches this alternate
    						if qid == prevP131id then
    								prop = proptbl[i2]
    								break
    						end -- of test for matching previous P131
    					end
    				end -- of loop through parent locations
    				-- fallback to second value if match not found
    				prop = prop or proptbl[2]
    			elseif #proptbl > 0 then
    				prop = proptbl[1]
    			end
    			if prop then break end
    		end
    
    		-- check if it's an instance of (P31) a country (Q6256) or sovereign state (Q3624078)
    		-- and terminate the chain if it is
    		local inst = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, "P31")
    		if #inst > 0 then
    			for k, v in ipairs(inst) do
    				local instid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    				-- stop if it's a country (or a country within the United Kingdom if skip is true)
    				if instid == "Q6256" or instid == "Q3624078" or (skip and instid == "Q3336843") then
    					prop = nil -- this will ensure this is treated as top-level location
    					break
    				end
    			end
    		end
    
    		-- get the name of this location and update qid to point to the parent location
    		if prop and prop.mainsnak.datavalue then
    			if not skip or count == 0 then
    				local args = { lprefix = ":" }
    				out[#out+1] = linkedItem(qid, args) -- get a linked value if we can
    			end
    			qid, prevqid = prop.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id, qid
    		else
    			-- This is top-level location, so get short name except when this is the first item
    			-- Use full label if there's no short name or this is the first item
    			local prop1813 = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, "P1813")
    			-- if there's a short name and this isn't the only item
    			if prop1813[1] and (#out > 0)then
    				local shortname
    				-- short name is monolingual text, so look for match to the local language
    				-- choose the shortest 'short name' in that language
    				for k, v in pairs(prop1813) do
    					if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == langcode then
    						local name = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text
    						if (not shortname) or (#name < #shortname) then
    							shortname = name
    						end
    					end
    				end
    				-- add the shortname if one is found, fallback to the label
    				-- but skip it if it's "USA"
    				if shortname ~= "USA" then
    					out[#out+1] = shortname or labelOrId(qid)
    				else
    					if skip then out[#out+1] = "US" end
    				end
    			else
    				-- no shortname, so just add the label
    				local loc = labelOrId(qid)
    				-- exceptions go here:
    				if loc == "United States of America" then
    					out[#out+1] = "United States"
    				else
    					out[#out+1] = loc
    				end
    			end
    			finished = true
    		end
    		count = count + 1
    	until finished or count >= 10 -- limit to 10 levels to avoid infinite loops
    
    	-- remove the first location if not required
    	if not first then table.remove(out, 1) end
    
    	-- we might have duplicate text for consecutive locations, so remove them
    	if #out > 2 then
    		local plain = {}
    		for i, v in ipairs(out) do
    			-- strip any links
    			plain[i] = v:gsub("^%[%[[^|]*|", ""):gsub("]]$", "")
    		end
    		local idx = 2
    		repeat
    			if plain[idx] == plain[idx-1] then
    				-- duplicate found
    				local removeidx = 0
    				if (plain[idx] ~= out[idx]) and (plain[idx-1] == out[idx-1]) then
    					-- only second one is linked, so drop the first
    					removeidx = idx - 1
    				elseif (plain[idx] == out[idx]) and (plain[idx-1] ~= out[idx-1]) then
    					-- only first one is linked, so drop the second
    					removeidx = idx
    				else
    					-- pick one
    					removeidx = idx - (os.time()%2)
    				end
    				table.remove(out, removeidx)
    				table.remove(plain, removeidx)
    			else
    				idx = idx +1
    			end
    		until idx >= #out
    	end
    	return out
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- _getsumofparts scans the property 'has part' (P527) for values matching a list.
    -- The list (args.vlist) consists of a string of Qids separated by spaces or any usual punctuation.
    -- If the matched values have a qualifer 'quantity' (P1114), those quantites are summed.
    -- The sum is returned as a number (i.e. 0 if none)
    -- a table of arguments is supplied implementing the usual parameters.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: setRanks; parseParam; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    local _getsumofparts = function(args)
    	local vallist = (args.vlist or ""):upper()
    	if vallist == "" then return end
    	args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    	local f = {}
    	f.args = args
    	local qid, props = parseInput(f, "", "P527")
    	if not qid then return 0 end
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local sum = 0
    	for k1, v1 in ipairs(props) do
    		if (onlysrc == false or sourced(v1))
    			and v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value"
    			and v1.mainsnak.datavalue.type == "wikibase-entityid"
    			and vallist:match( v1.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id )
    			and v1.qualifiers
    			then
    			local quals = v1.qualifiers["P1114"]
    			if quals then
    				for k2, v2 in ipairs(quals) do
    					sum = sum + v2.datavalue.value.amount
    				end
    			end
    		end
    	end
    	return sum
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Public functions
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- _getValue makes the functionality of getValue available to other modules
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput; parseParam; sourced;
    -- labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date; makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p._getValue = function(args)
    	-- parameter sets for commonly used groups of parameters
    	local paraset = tonumber(args.ps or args.parameterset or 0)
    	if paraset == 1 then
    		-- a common setting
    		args.rank = "best"
    		args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    		args.onlysourced = "no"
    		args.noicon = "true"
    	elseif paraset == 2 then
    		-- equivalent to raw
    		args.rank = "best"
    		args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    		args.onlysourced = "no"
    		args.noicon = "true"
    		args.linked = "no"
    		args.pd = "true"
    	elseif paraset == 3 then
    		-- third set goes here
    	end
    
    	-- implement eid parameter
    	local eid = args.eid
    	if eid == "" then
    		return nil
    	elseif eid then
    		args.qid = eid
    	end
    
    	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    
    	args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    
    	-- replacetext (rt) is a string that is returned instead of any non-empty Wikidata value
    	-- this is useful for tracking and debugging, so we set fetchwikidata=ALL to fill the whitelist
    	local replacetext = mw.text.trim(args.rt or args.replacetext or "")
    	if replacetext ~= "" then
    		args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    	end
    
    	local f = {}
    	f.args = args
    	local entityid, props = parseInput(f, f.args[2], propertyID)
    
    	if not entityid then
    		return props -- either the input parameter or nothing
    	end
    
    	-- qual is a string containing the property ID of the qualifier(s) to be returned
    	-- if qual == "ALL" then all qualifiers returned
    	-- if qual == "DATES" then qualifiers P580 (start time) and P582 (end time) returned
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it nil -> no qualifiers returned
    	local qualID = mw.text.trim(args.qual or ""):upper()
    	if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end
    
    	-- set a language object and code in the args table
    	args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    	args.lang = args.langobj.code
    
    	-- table 'out' stores the return value(s):
    	local out = propertyvalueandquals(props, args, qualID)
    
    	-- format the table of values and return it as a string:
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, entityid, propertyID)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getValue is used to get the value(s) of a property
    -- The property ID is passed as the first unnamed parameter and is required.
    -- A locally supplied parameter may optionaly be supplied as the second unnamed parameter.
    -- The function will now also return qualifiers if parameter qual is supplied
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getValue; setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput; parseParam; sourced;
    -- labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date; makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getValue = function(frame)
    	local args= frame.args
    	if not args[1] then
    		args = frame:getParent().args
    		if not args[1] then return i18n.errors["No property supplied"] end
    	end
    
    	return p._getValue(args)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getPreferredValue is used to get a value,
    -- (or a comma separated list of them if multiple values exist).
    -- If preferred ranks are set, it will return those values, otherwise values with normal ranks
    -- now redundant to getValue with |rank=best
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: p.getValue; setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput;
    -- parseParam; sourced; labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date;
    -- makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getPreferredValue = function(frame)
    	frame.args.rank = "best"
    	return p.getValue(frame)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getCoords is used to get coordinates for display in an infobox
    -- whitelist and blacklist are implemented
    -- optional 'display' parameter is allowed, defaults to nil - was "inline, title"
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: setRanks(); parseInput(); decimalPrecision();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getCoords = function(frame)
    	local propertyID = "P625"
    
    	-- if there is a 'display' parameter supplied, use it
    	-- otherwise default to nothing
    	local disp = frame.args.display or ""
    	if disp == "" then
    		disp = nil -- default to not supplying display parameter, was "inline, title"
    	end
    
    	-- there may be a format parameter to switch from deg/min/sec to decimal degrees
    	-- default is deg/min/sec
    	-- decimal degrees needs |format = dec
    	local form = (frame.args.format or ""):lower():sub(1,3)
    	if form ~= "dec" then
    		form = "dms"
    	end
    
    	-- just deal with best values
    	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks("best")
    
    	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[1], propertyID)
    	if not qid then
    		return props -- either local parameter or nothing
    	else
    		local dv = props[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value
    		local lat, long, prec = dv.latitude, dv.longitude, dv.precision
    		lat = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
    		long = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
    		local lat_long = { lat, long }
    		lat_long["display"] = disp
    		lat_long["format"] = form
    		-- invoke template Coord with the values stored in the table
    		return frame:expandTemplate{title = 'coord', args = lat_long}
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getQualifierValue is used to get a formatted value of a qualifier
    --
    -- The call needs:	a property (the unnamed parameter or 1=)
    -- 					a target value for that property (pval=)
    --					a qualifier for that target value (qual=)
    -- The usual whitelisting and blacklisting of the property is implemented
    -- The boolean onlysourced= parameter can be set to return nothing
    -- when the property is unsourced (or only sourced to Wikipedia)
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam(); setRanks(); parseInput(); sourced();
    -- propertyvalueandquals(); assembleoutput();
    -- labelOrId(); i18n.latestdatequalifier(); format_Date();
    -- findLang(); makeOrdinal(); roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getQualifierValue = function(frame)
    
    	-- The property ID that will have a qualifier is the first unnamed parameter
    	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    
    	-- The value of the property we want to match whose qualifier value is to be returned
    	-- is passed in named parameter |pval=
    	local propvalue = frame.args.pval
    
    	-- The property ID of the qualifier
    	-- whose value is to be returned is passed in named parameter |qual=
    	local qualifierID = frame.args.qual
    
    	-- A filter can be set like this: filter=P642==Q22674854
    	local filter, fprop, fval
    	local ftable = mw.text.split(frame.args.filter or "", "==")
    	if ftable[2] then
    		fprop = mw.text.trim(ftable[1])
    		fval = mw.text.trim(ftable[2])
    		filter = true
    	end
    
    	-- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return qualifiers
    	-- only when property values are sourced to something other than Wikipedia
    	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
    	-- if "false" or "no" or 0 is passed set it false
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)
    
    	-- set a language object and language code in the frame.args table
    	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    
    	-- set the requested ranks flags
    	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    
    	-- check for locally supplied parameter in second unnamed parameter
    	-- success means no local parameter and the property exists
    	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)
    	if qid then
    		local out = {}
    		-- Scan through the values of the property
    		-- we want something like property is P793, significant event (in propertyID)
    		-- whose value is something like Q385378, construction (in propvalue)
    		-- then we can return the value(s) of a qualifier such as P580, start time (in qualifierID)
    		for k1, v1 in pairs(props) do
    			if v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and v1.mainsnak.datavalue.type == "wikibase-entityid" then
    				-- It's a wiki-linked value, so check if it's the target (in propvalue) and if it has qualifiers
    				if v1.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == propvalue and v1.qualifiers then
    					if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
    						-- if we've got this far, we have a (sourced) claim with qualifiers
    						-- which matches the target, so apply the filter and find the value(s) of the qualifier we want
    						if not filter or (v1.qualifiers[fprop] and v1.qualifiers[fprop][1].datavalue.value.id == fval) then
    							local quals = v1.qualifiers[qualifierID]
    							if quals then
    								-- can't reference qualifer, so set onlysourced = "no" (args are strings, not boolean)
    								local qargs = frame.args
    								qargs.onlysourced = "no"
    								local vals = propertyvalueandquals(quals, qargs, qid)
    								for k, v in ipairs(vals) do
    									out[#out + 1] = v
    								end
    							end
    						end
    					end -- of check for sourced
    				end -- of check for matching required value and has qualifiers
    			end -- of check for wikibase entity
    		end -- of loop through values of propertyID
    		return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
    	else
    		return props -- either local parameter or nothing
    	end -- of test for success
    	return nil
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getSumOfParts scans the property 'has part' (P527) for values matching a list.
    -- The list is passed in parameter vlist.
    -- It consists of a string of Qids separated by spaces or any usual punctuation.
    -- If the matched values have a qualifier 'quantity' (P1114), those quantities are summed.
    -- The sum is returned as a number or nothing if zero.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getsumofparts;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getSumOfParts = function(frame)
    	local sum = _getsumofparts(frame.args)
    	if sum == 0 then return end
    	return sum
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getValueByQual gets the value of a property which has a qualifier with a given entity value
    -- The call needs:
    --					a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
    --					the ID of a qualifier for that property (qualID=Pyyy)
    --					either the Wikibase-entity ID of a value for that qualifier (qvalue=Qzzz)
    --					or a string value for that qualifier (qvalue=abc123)
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getvaluebyqual; parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced;
    -- assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getValueByQual = function(frame)
    	local qualID = frame.args.qualID
    	-- The Q-id of the value for the qualifier we want to match is in named parameter |qvalue=
    	local qval = frame.args.qvalue or ""
    	if qval == "" then return "no qualifier value supplied" end
    	local function checkQID(id)
    		return id == qval
    	end
    	return _getvaluebyqual(frame, qualID, checkQID)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getValueByLang gets the value of a property which has a qualifier P407
    -- ("language of work or name") whose value has the given language code
    -- The call needs:
    --					a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
    --					the MediaWiki language code to match the language (lang=xx[-yy])
    --					(if no code is supplied, it uses the default language)
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getvaluebyqual; parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getValueByLang = function(frame)
    	-- The language code for the qualifier we want to match is in named parameter |lang=
    	local langcode = findLang(frame.args.lang).code
    	local function checkLanguage(id)
    		-- id should represent a language like "British English (Q7979)"
    		-- it should have string property "Wikimedia language code (P424)"
    		-- qlcode will be a table:
    		local qlcode = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P424")
    		if (#qlcode > 0) and (qlcode[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value == langcode) then
    			return true
    		end
    	end
    	return _getvaluebyqual(frame, "P407", checkLanguage)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getValueByRefSource gets the value of a property which has a reference "stated in" (P248)
    -- whose value has the given entity-ID.
    -- The call needs:
    --					a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
    --					the entity ID of a value to match where the reference is stated in (match=Qzzz)
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getValueByRefSource = function(frame)
    	-- The property ID that we want to check is the first unnamed parameter
    	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or ""):upper()
    	if propertyID == "" then return "no property supplied" end
    
    	-- The Q-id of the value we want to match is in named parameter |qvalue=
    	local qval = (frame.args.match or ""):upper()
    	if qval == "" then qval = "Q21540096" end
    
    	local unit = (frame.args.unit or ""):upper()
    	if unit == "" then unit = "Q4917" end
    
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)
    
    	-- set the requested ranks flags
    	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    
    	-- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
    	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    
    	local linked = parseParam(frame.args.linked, true)
    
    	local uabbr = parseParam(frame.args.uabbr or frame.args.unitabbr, false)
    
    	-- qid not nil means no local parameter and the property exists
    	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)
    
    	if qid then
    		local out = {}
    		local mlt= {}
    		for k1, v1 in ipairs(props) do
    			if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
    				if v1.references then
    					for k2, v2 in ipairs(v1.references) do
    						if v2.snaks.P248 then
    							for k3, v3 in ipairs(v2.snaks.P248) do
    								if v3.datavalue.value.id == qval then
    									out[#out+1], mlt[#out+1] = rendersnak(v1, frame.args, linked, "", "", "", "", uabbr, unit)
    									if not mlt[#out] then
    										-- we only need one match per property value
    										-- unless datatype was monolingual text
    										break
    									end
    								end -- of test for match
    							end -- of loop through values "stated in"
    						end -- of test that "stated in" exists
    					end -- of loop through references
    				end -- of test that references exist
    			end -- of test for sourced
    		end -- of loop through values of propertyID
    		if #mlt > 0 then
    			local langcode = frame.args.lang
    			langcode = mw.text.split( langcode, '-', true )[1]
    			local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( langcode )
    			table.insert( fbtbl, 1, langcode )
    			local bestval = ""
    			local found = false
    			for idx1, lang1 in ipairs(fbtbl) do
    				for idx2, lang2 in ipairs(mlt) do
    					if (lang1 == lang2) and not found then
    						bestval = out[idx2]
    						found = true
    						break
    					end
    				end -- loop through values of property
    			end -- loop through fallback languages
    			if found then
    				-- replace output table with a table containing the best value
    				out = { bestval }
    			else
    				-- more than one value and none of them on the list of fallback languages
    				-- sod it, just give them the first one
    				out = { out[1] }
    			end
    		end
    		return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
    	else
    		return props -- no property or local parameter supplied
    	end -- of test for success
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getPropertyIDs takes most of the usual parameters.
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented.
    -- It returns the Entity-IDs (Qids) of the values of a property if it is a Wikibase-Entity.
    -- Otherwise it returns nothing.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p._getPropertyIDs = function(args)
    	args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    	args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    	args.lang = args.langobj.code
    	-- change default for noicon to true
    	args.noicon = tostring(parseParam(args.noicon or "", true))
    	local f = {}
    	f.args = args
    	local pid = mw.text.trim(args[1] or ""):upper()
    
    	-- get the qid and table of claims for the property, or nothing and the local value passed
    	local qid, props = parseInput(f, args[2], pid)
    	if not qid then return props end
    	if not props[1] then return nil end
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    
    	local out = {}
    	for i, v in ipairs(props) do
    		local snak = v.mainsnak
    		if ( snak.datatype == "wikibase-item" )
    			and ( v.rank and args.reqranks[v.rank:sub(1, 1)] )
    			and ( snak.snaktype == "value" )
    			and ( sourced(v) or not onlysrc )
    			then
    			out[#out+1] = snak.datavalue.value.id
    		end
    		if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    	end
    
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, qid, pid)
    end
    
    p.getPropertyIDs = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args
    	return p._getPropertyIDs(args)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getQualifierIDs takes most of the usual parameters.
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented.
    -- It takes a property-id as the first unnamed parameter, and an optional parameter qlist
    -- which is a list of qualifier property-ids to search for (default is "ALL")
    -- It returns the Entity-IDs (Qids) of the values of a property if it is a Wikibase-Entity.
    -- Otherwise it returns nothing.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getQualifierIDs = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args
    	args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    	args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    	args.lang = args.langobj.code
    	-- change default for noicon to true
    	args.noicon = tostring(parseParam(args.noicon or "", true))
    	local f = {}
    	f.args = args
    	local pid = mw.text.trim(args[1] or ""):upper()
    
    	-- get the qid and table of claims for the property, or nothing and the local value passed
    	local qid, props = parseInput(f, args[2], pid)
    	if not qid then return props end
    	if not props[1] then return nil end
    	-- get the other parameters
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    	local qlist = args.qlist or ""
    	if qlist == "" then qlist = "ALL" end
    	qlist = qlist:gsub("[%p%s]+", " ") .. " "
    
    	local out = {}
    	for i, v in ipairs(props) do
    		local snak = v.mainsnak
    		if ( v.rank and args.reqranks[v.rank:sub(1, 1)] )
    			and ( snak.snaktype == "value" )
    			and ( sourced(v) or not onlysrc )
    			then
    			if v.qualifiers then
    				for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
    					if qlist == "ALL " or qlist:match(k1 .. " ") then
    						for i2, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
    							if v2.datatype == "wikibase-item" and v2.snaktype == "value" then
    								out[#out+1] = v2.datavalue.value.id
    							end -- of test that id exists
    						end -- of loop through qualifier values
    					end -- of test for kq in qlist
    				end -- of loop through qualifiers
    			end -- of test for qualifiers
    		end -- of test for rank value, sourced, and value exists
    		if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    	end -- of loop through property values
    
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, qid, pid)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getPropOfProp takes two propertyIDs: prop1 and prop2 (as well as the usual parameters)
    -- If the value(s) of prop1 are of type "wikibase-item" then it returns the value(s) of prop2
    -- of each of those wikibase-items.
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p._getPropOfProp = function(args)
    	-- parameter sets for commonly used groups of parameters
    	local paraset = tonumber(args.ps or args.parameterset or 0)
    	if paraset == 1 then
    		-- a common setting
    		args.rank = "best"
    		args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    		args.onlysourced = "no"
    		args.noicon = "true"
    	elseif paraset == 2 then
    		-- equivalent to raw
    		args.rank = "best"
    		args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
    		args.onlysourced = "no"
    		args.noicon = "true"
    		args.linked = "no"
    		args.pd = "true"
    	elseif paraset == 3 then
    		-- third set goes here
    	end
    
    	args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    	args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    	args.lang = args.langobj.code
    	local pid1 = args.prop1 or args.pid1 or ""
    	local pid2 = args.prop2 or args.pid2 or ""
    	if pid1 == "" or pid2 == "" then return nil end
    
    	local f = {}
    	f.args = args
    	local qid1, statements1 = parseInput(f, args[1], pid1)
    	-- parseInput nulls empty args[1] and returns args[1] if nothing on Wikidata
    	if not qid1 then return statements1 end
    	-- otherwise it returns the qid and a table for the statement
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    	local qualID = mw.text.trim(args.qual or ""):upper()
    	if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end
    	local out = {}
    	for k, v in ipairs(statements1) do
    		if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
    			local snak = v.mainsnak
    			if snak.datatype == "wikibase-item" and snak.snaktype == "value" then
    				local qid2 = snak.datavalue.value.id
    				local statements2 = {}
    				if args.reqranks.b then
    					statements2 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid2, pid2)
    				else
    					statements2 = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid2, pid2)
    				end
    				if statements2[1] then
    					local out2 = propertyvalueandquals(statements2, args, qualID)
    					out[#out+1] = assembleoutput(out2, args, qid2, pid2)
    				end
    			end -- of test for valid property1 value
    		end -- of test for sourced
    		if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    	end -- of loop through values of property1
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, qid1, pid1)
    end
    
    p.getPropOfProp = function(frame)
    	local args= frame.args
    	if not args.prop1 and not args.pid1 then
    		args = frame:getParent().args
    		if not args.prop1 and not args.pid1 then return i18n.errors["No property supplied"] end
    	end
    
    	return p._getPropOfProp(args)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getAwardCat takes most of the usual parameters. If the item has values of P166 (award received),
    -- then it examines each of those awards for P2517 (category for recipients of this award).
    -- If it exists, it returns the corresponding category,
    -- with the item's P734 (family name) as sort key, or no sort key if there is no family name.
    -- The sort key may be overridden by the parameter |sortkey (alias |sk).
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getAwardCat = function(frame)
    	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    	local args = frame.args
    	args.sep = " "
    	local pid1 = args.prop1 or "P166"
    	local pid2 = args.prop2 or "P2517"
    	if pid1 == "" or pid2 == "" then return nil end
    	-- locally supplied value:
    	local localval = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    	local qid1, statements1 = parseInput(frame, localval, pid1)
    	if not qid1 then return localval end
    	-- linkprefix (strip quotes)
    	local lp = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	-- sort key (strip quotes, hyphens and periods):
    	local sk = (args.sortkey or args.sk or ""):gsub('["-.]', '')
    	-- family name:
    	local famname = ""
    	if sk == "" then
    		local p734 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid1, "P734")[1]
    		local p734id = p734 and p734.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and p734.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id or ""
    		famname = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(p734id) or ""
    		-- strip namespace and disambigation
    		local pos = famname:find(":") or 0
    		famname = famname:sub(pos+1):gsub("%s%(.+%)$", "")
    		if famname == "" then
    			local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabel(p734id)
    			famname = lbl and mw.text.nowiki(lbl) or ""
    		end
    	end
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    	local qualID = mw.text.trim(args.qual or ""):upper()
    	if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end
    	local out = {}
    	for k, v in ipairs(statements1) do
    		if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
    			local snak = v.mainsnak
    			if snak.datatype == "wikibase-item" and snak.snaktype == "value" then
    				local qid2 = snak.datavalue.value.id
    				local statements2 = {}
    				if args.reqranks.b then
    					statements2 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid2, pid2)
    				else
    					statements2 = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid2, pid2)
    				end
    				if statements2[1] and statements2[1].mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
    					local qid3 = statements2[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    					local sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(qid3)
    					-- if there's no local sitelink, create the sitelink from English label
    					if not sitelink then
    						local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(qid3, "en")
    						if lbl then
    							if lbl:sub(1,9) == "Category:" then
    								sitelink = mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
    							else
    								sitelink = "Category:" .. mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
    							end
    						end
    					end
    					if sitelink then
    						if sk ~= "" then
    							out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. sitelink .. "|" .. sk .. "]]"
    						elseif famname ~= "" then
    							out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. sitelink .. "|" .. famname .. "]]"
    						else
    							out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. sitelink .. "]]"
    						end -- of check for sort keys
    					end -- of test for sitelink
    				end -- of test for category
    			end -- of test for wikibase item has a value
    		end -- of test for sourced
    		if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
    	end -- of loop through values of property1
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, qid1, pid1)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getIntersectCat takes most of the usual parameters.
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
    -- It takes two properties, |prop1 and |prop2 (e.g. occupation and country of citizenship)
    -- Each property's value is a wiki-base entity
    -- For each value of the first parameter (ranks implemented) it fetches the value's main category
    -- and then each value of the second parameter (possibly substituting a simpler description)
    -- then it returns all of the categories representing the intersection of those properties,
    -- (e.g. Category:Actors from Canada). A joining term may be supplied (e.g. |join=from).
    -- The item's P734 (family name) is the sort key, or no sort key if there is no family name.
    -- The sort key may be overridden by the parameter |sortkey (alias |sk).
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getIntersectCat = function(frame)
    	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)
    	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code
    	local args = frame.args
    	args.sep = " "
    	args.linked = "no"
    	local pid1 = args.prop1 or "P106"
    	local pid2 = args.prop2 or "P27"
    	if pid1 == "" or pid2 == "" then return nil end
    	local qid, statements1 = parseInput(frame, "", pid1)
    	if not qid then return nil end
    	local qid, statements2 = parseInput(frame, "", pid2)
    	if not qid then return nil end
    	-- topics like countries may have different names in categories from their label in Wikidata
    	local subs_exists, subs = pcall(mw.loadData, "Module:WikidataIB/subs")
    	local join = args.join or ""
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0
    	-- linkprefix (strip quotes)
    	local lp = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')
    	-- sort key (strip quotes, hyphens and periods):
    	local sk = (args.sortkey or args.sk or ""):gsub('["-.]', '')
    	-- family name:
    	local famname = ""
    	if sk == "" then
    		local p734 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P734")[1]
    		local p734id = p734 and p734.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and p734.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id or ""
    		famname = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(p734id) or ""
    		-- strip namespace and disambigation
    		local pos = famname:find(":") or 0
    		famname = famname:sub(pos+1):gsub("%s%(.+%)$", "")
    		if famname == "" then
    			local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabel(p734id)
    			famname = lbl and mw.text.nowiki(lbl) or ""
    		end
    	end
    	local cat1 = {}
    	for k, v in ipairs(statements1) do
    		if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
    			-- get the ID representing the value of the property
    			local pvalID = (v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value") and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    			if pvalID then
    				-- get the topic's main category (P910) for that entity
    				local p910 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(pvalID, "P910")[1]
    				if p910 and p910.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
    					local tmcID = p910.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    					-- use sitelink or the English label for the cat
    					local cat = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(tmcID)
    					if not cat then
    						local lbl = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(tmcID, "en")
    						if lbl then
    							if lbl:sub(1,9) == "Category:" then
    								cat = mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
    							else
    								cat = "Category:" .. mw.text.nowiki(lbl)
    							end
    						end
    					end
    					cat1[#cat1+1] = cat
    				end -- of test for topic's main category exists
    			end -- of test for property has vaild value
    		end -- of test for sourced
    		if maxvals > 0 and #cat1 >= maxvals then break end
    	end
    	local cat2 = {}
    	for k, v in ipairs(statements2) do
    		if not onlysrc or sourced(v) then
    			local cat = rendersnak(v, args)
    			if subs[cat] then cat = subs[cat] end
    			cat2[#cat2+1] = cat
    		end
    		if maxvals > 0 and #cat2 >= maxvals then break end
    	end
    	local out = {}
    	for k1, v1 in ipairs(cat1) do
    		for k2, v2 in ipairs(cat2) do
    			if sk ~= "" then
    				out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. v1 .. " " .. join .. " " .. v2 .. "|" .. sk .. "]]"
    			elseif famname ~= "" then
    				out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. v1 .. " " .. join .. " " .. v2 .. "|" .. famname .. "]]"
    			else
    				out[#out+1] = "[[" .. lp .. v1 .. " " .. join .. " " .. v2 .. "]]"
    			end -- of check for sort keys
    		end
    	end
    	args.noicon = "true"
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, qid, pid1)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- qualsToTable takes most of the usual parameters.
    -- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented.
    -- A qid may be given, and the first unnamed parameter is the property ID, which is of type wikibase item.
    -- It takes a list of qualifier property IDs as |quals=
    -- For a given qid and property, it creates the rows of an html table,
    -- each row being a value of the property (optionally only if the property matches the value in |pval= )
    -- each cell being the first value of the qualifier corresponding to the list in |quals
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.qualsToTable = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args
    
    	local quals = args.quals or ""
    	if quals == "" then return "" end
    
    	args.reqranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    
    	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    	local f = {}
    	f.args = args
    	local entityid, props = parseInput(f, "", propertyID)
    	if not entityid then return "" end
    
    	args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    	args.lang = args.langobj.code
    
    	local pval = args.pval or ""
    
    	local qplist = mw.text.split(quals, "%p") -- split at punctuation and make a sequential table
    	for i, v in ipairs(qplist) do
    		qplist[i] = mw.text.trim(v):upper() -- remove whitespace and capitalise
    	end
    
    	local col1 = args.firstcol or ""
    	if col1 ~= "" then
    		col1 = col1 .. "</td><td>"
    	end
    
    	local emptycell = args.emptycell or "&nbsp;"
    
    	-- construct a 2-D array of qualifier values in qvals
    	local qvals = {}
    	for i, v in ipairs(props) do
    		local skip = false
    		if pval ~= "" then
    			local pid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    			if pid ~= pval then skip = true end
    		end
    		if not skip then
    			local qval = {}
    			local vqualifiers = v.qualifiers or {}
    			-- go through list of wanted qualifier properties
    			for i1, v1 in ipairs(qplist) do
    				-- check for that property ID in the statement's qualifiers
    				local qv, qtype
    				if vqualifiers[v1] then
    					qtype = vqualifiers[v1][1].datatype
    					if qtype == "time" then
    						if vqualifiers[v1][1].snaktype == "value" then
    							qv = mw.wikibase.renderSnak(vqualifiers[v1][1])
    							qv = frame:expandTemplate{title="dts", args={qv}}
    						else
    							qv = "?"
    						end
    					elseif qtype == "url" then
    						if vqualifiers[v1][1].snaktype == "value" then
    							qv = mw.wikibase.renderSnak(vqualifiers[v1][1])
    							local display = mw.ustring.match( mw.uri.decode(qv, "WIKI"), "([%w ]+)$" )
    							if display then
    								qv = "[" .. qv .. " " .. display .. "]"
    							end
    						end
    					else
    						qv = mw.wikibase.formatValue(vqualifiers[v1][1])
    					end
    				end
    				-- record either the value or a placeholder
    				qval[i1] = qv or emptycell
    			end -- of loop through list of qualifiers
    			-- add the list of qualifier values as a "row" in the main list
    			qvals[#qvals+1] = qval
    		end
    	end -- of for each value loop
    
    	local out = {}
    	for i, v in ipairs(qvals) do
    		out[i] = "<tr><td>" .. col1 .. table.concat(qvals[i], "</td><td>") .. "</td></tr>"
    	end
    	return table.concat(out, "\n")
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getGlobe takes an optional qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- otherwise it uses the linked item for the current page.
    -- If returns the Qid of the globe used in P625 (coordinate location),
    -- or nil if there isn't one.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getGlobe = function(frame)
    	local qid = frame.args.qid or frame.args[1] or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	local coords = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P625")[1]
    	local globeid
    	if coords and coords.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
    		globeid = coords.mainsnak.datavalue.value.globe:match("(Q%d+)")
    	end
    	return globeid
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getCommonsLink takes an optional qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- It returns one of the following in order of preference:
    -- the Commons sitelink of the linked Wikidata item;
    -- the Commons sitelink of the topic's main category of the linked Wikidata item;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getCommonslink(); _getSitelink(); parseParam()
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getCommonsLink = function(frame)
    	local oc = frame.args.onlycat or frame.args.onlycategories
    	local fb = parseParam(frame.args.fallback or frame.args.fb, true)
    	return _getCommonslink(frame.args.qid, oc, fb)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getSitelink takes the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- It takes an optional parameter |wiki= to determine which wiki is to be checked for a sitelink
    -- If the parameter is blank, then it uses the local wiki.
    -- If there is a sitelink to an article available, it returns the plain text link to the article
    -- If there is no sitelink, it returns nil.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getSiteLink = function(frame)
    	return _getSitelink(frame.args.qid, frame.args.wiki or mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or ""))
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getLink has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
    -- If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns a link to the article
    -- with the Wikidata label as the displayed text.
    -- If there is no sitelink, it returns the label as plain text.
    -- If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getLink = function(frame)
    	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    	if itemID == "" then return end
    	local sitelink = mw.wikibase.getSitelink(itemID)
    	local label = labelOrId(itemID)
    	if sitelink then
    		return "[[:" .. sitelink .. "|" .. label .. "]]"
    	else
    		return label
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getLabel has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
    -- It returns the Wikidata label for the local language as plain text.
    -- If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getLabel = function(frame)
    	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    	if itemID == "" then return end
    	local lang = frame.args.lang or ""
    	if lang == "" then lang = nil end
    	local label = labelOrId(itemID, lang)
    	return label
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- label has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
    -- if no qid is supplied, it uses the qid associated with the current page.
    -- It returns the Wikidata label for the local language as plain text.
    -- If there is no label in the local language, it returns nil.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.label = function(frame)
    	local qid = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return end
    	local lang = frame.args.lang or ""
    	if lang == "" then lang = nil end
    	local label, success = labelOrId(qid, lang)
    	if success then return label end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getAT (Article Title)
    -- has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
    -- If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns the sitelink as plain text.
    -- If there is no sitelink or qid supplied, it returns nothing.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getAT = function(frame)
    	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
    	if itemID == "" then return end
    	return mw.wikibase.getSitelink(itemID)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getDescription has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- (it defaults to the associated qid of the current article if omitted)
    -- and a local parameter passed as the first unnamed parameter.
    -- Any local parameter passed (other than "Wikidata" or "none") becomes the return value.
    -- It returns the article description for the Wikidata entity if the local parameter is "Wikidata".
    -- Nothing is returned if the description doesn't exist or "none" is passed as the local parameter.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getDescription = function(frame)
    	local desc = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qid or "")
    	if itemID == "" then itemID = nil end
    	if desc:lower() == 'wikidata' then
    		return mw.wikibase.getDescription(itemID)
    	elseif desc:lower() == 'none' then
    		return nil
    	else
    		return desc
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getAliases has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
    -- (it defaults to the associated qid of the current article if omitted)
    -- and a local parameter passed as the first unnamed parameter.
    -- It implements blacklisting and whitelisting with a field name of "alias" by default.
    -- Any local parameter passed becomes the return value.
    -- Otherwise it returns the aliases for the Wikidata entity with the usual list options.
    -- Nothing is returned if the aliases do not exist.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: findLang(); assembleoutput()
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getAliases = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args
    
    	local fieldname = args.name or ""
    	if fieldname == "" then fieldname = "alias" end
    
    	local blacklist = args.suppressfields or args.spf or ""
    	if blacklist:find(fieldname) then return nil end
    
    	local localval = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    	if localval ~= "" then return localval end
    
    	local whitelist = args.fetchwikidata or args.fwd or ""
    	if whitelist == "" then whitelist = "NONE" end
    	if not (whitelist == 'ALL' or whitelist:find(fieldname)) then return nil end
    
    	local qid = args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return nil end
    
    	local aliases = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).aliases
    	if not aliases then return nil end
    
    	args.langobj = findLang(args.lang)
    	local langcode = args.langobj.code
    	args.lang = langcode
    
    	local out = {}
    	for k1, v1 in pairs(aliases) do
    		if v1[1].language == langcode then
    			for k1, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
    				out[#out+1] = v2.value
    			end
    			break
    		end
    	end
    
    	return assembleoutput(out, args, qid)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- pageId returns the page id (entity ID, Qnnn) of the current page
    -- returns nothing if the page is not connected to Wikidata
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.pageId = function(frame)
    	return mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- formatDate is a wrapper to export the private function format_Date
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: format_Date();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.formatDate = function(frame)
    	return format_Date(frame.args[1], frame.args.df, frame.args.bc)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- location is a wrapper to export the private function _location
    -- it takes the entity-id as qid or the first unnamed parameter
    -- optional boolean parameter first toggles the display of the first item
    -- optional boolean parameter skip toggles the display to skip to the last item
    -- parameter debug=<y/n> (default 'n') adds error msg if not a location
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _location();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.location = function(frame)
    	local debug = (frame.args.debug or ""):sub(1, 1):lower()
    	if debug == "" then debug = "n" end
    	local qid = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1] or ""):upper()
    	if qid == "" then qid=mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then
    		if debug ~= "n" then
    			return i18n.errors["entity-not-found"]
    		else
    			return nil
    		end
    	end
    	local first = mw.text.trim(frame.args.first or "")
    	local skip = mw.text.trim(frame.args.skip or "")
    	return table.concat( _location(qid, first, skip), ", " )
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- checkBlacklist implements a test to check whether a named field is allowed
    -- returns true if the field is not blacklisted (i.e. allowed)
    -- returns false if the field is blacklisted (i.e. disallowed)
    -- {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=Joe |suppressfields=Dave; Joe; Fred}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}}
    -- displays "blacklisted"
    -- {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=Jim |suppressfields=Dave; Joe; Fred}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}}
    -- displays "not blacklisted"
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.checkBlacklist = function(frame)
    	local blacklist = frame.args.suppressfields or frame.args.spf or ""
    	local fieldname = frame.args.name or ""
    	if blacklist ~= "" and fieldname ~= "" then
    		if blacklist:find(fieldname) then
    			return false
    		else
    			return true
    		end
    	else
    		-- one of the fields is missing: let's call that "not on the list"
    		return true
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- emptyor returns nil if its first unnamed argument is just punctuation, whitespace or html tags
    -- otherwise it returns the argument unchanged (including leading/trailing space).
    -- If the argument may contain "=", then it must be called explicitly:
    -- |1=arg
    -- (In that case, leading and trailing spaces are trimmed)
    -- It finds use in infoboxes where it can replace tests like:
    -- {{#if: {{#invoke:WikidatIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}} | <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidatIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> | }}
    -- with a form that uses just a single call to Wikidata:
    -- {{#invoke |WikidataIB |emptyor |1= <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> }}
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.emptyor = function(frame)
    	local s = frame.args[1] or ""
    	if s == "" then return nil end
    	local sx = s:gsub("%s", ""):gsub("<[^>]*>", ""):gsub("%p", "")
    	if sx == "" then
    		return nil
    	else
    		return s
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- labelorid is a public function to expose the output of labelOrId()
    -- Pass the Q-number as |qid= or as an unnamed parameter.
    -- It returns the Wikidata label for that entity or the qid if no label exists.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: labelOrId
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.labelorid = function(frame)
    	return (labelOrId(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1]))
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getLang returns the MediaWiki language code of the current content.
    -- If optional parameter |style=full, it returns the language name.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getLang = function(frame)
    	local style = (frame.args.style or ""):lower()
    	local langcode = mw.language.getContentLanguage().code
    	if style == "full" then
    		return mw.language.fetchLanguageName( langcode )
    	end
    	return langcode
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getItemLangCode takes a qid parameter (using the current page's qid if blank)
    -- If the item for that qid has property country (P17) it looks at the first preferred value
    -- If the country has an official language (P37), it looks at the first preferred value
    -- If that official language has a language code (P424), it returns the first preferred value
    -- Otherwise it returns nothing.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: _getItemLangCode()
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getItemLangCode = function(frame)
    	return _getItemLangCode(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1])
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- findLanguage exports the local findLang() function
    -- It takes an optional language code and returns, in order of preference:
    -- the code if a known language;
    -- the user's language, if set;
    -- the server's content language.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: findLang
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.findLanguage = function(frame)
    	return findLang(frame.args.lang or frame.args[1]).code
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getQid returns the qid, if supplied
    -- failing that, the Wikidata entity ID of the "category's main topic (P301)", if it exists
    -- failing that, the Wikidata entity ID associated with the current page, if it exists
    -- otherwise, nothing
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getQid = function(frame)
    	local qid = (frame.args.qid or ""):upper()
    	-- check if a qid was passed; if so, return it:
    	if qid ~= "" then return qid end
    	-- check if there's a "category's main topic (P301)":
    	qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
    	if qid then
    		local prop301 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P301")
    		if prop301[1] then
    			local mctid = prop301[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    			if mctid then return mctid end
    		end
    	end
    	-- otherwise return the page qid (if any)
    	return qid
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- followQid takes four optional parameters: qid, props, list and all.
    -- If qid is not given, it uses the qid for the connected page
    -- or returns nil if there isn't one.
    -- props is a list of properties, separated by punctuation.
    -- If props is given, the Wikidata item for the qid is examined for each property in turn.
    -- If that property contains a value that is another Wikibase-item, that item's qid is returned,
    -- and the search terminates, unless |all=y when all of the qids are returned, separated by spaces.
    -- If |list= is set to a template, the qids are passed as arguments to the template.
    -- If props is not given, the qid is returned.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam()
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p._followQid = function(args)
    	local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
    	local all = parseParam(args.all, false)
    	local list = args.list or ""
    	if list == "" then list = nil end
    	if qid == "" then
    		qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
    	end
    	if not qid then return nil end
    	local out = {}
    	local props = (args.props or ""):upper()
    	if props ~= "" then
    		for p in mw.text.gsplit(props, "%p") do -- split at punctuation and iterate
    			p = mw.text.trim(p)
    			for i, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, p) ) do
    				local linkedid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
    				if linkedid then
    					if all then
    						out[#out+1] = linkedid
    					else
    						return linkedid
    					end -- test for all or just the first one found
    				end -- test for value exists for that property
    			end -- loop through values of property to follow
    		end -- loop through list of properties to follow
    	end
    	if #out > 0 then
    		local ret = ""
    		if list then
    			ret = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = list, args = out}
    		else
    			ret = table.concat(out, " ")
    		end
    		return ret
    	else
    		return qid
    	end
    end
    
    p.followQid = function(frame)
    	return p._followQid(frame.args)
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- globalSiteID returns the globalSiteID for the current wiki
    -- e.g. returns "enwiki" for the English Wikipedia, "enwikisource" for English Wikisource, etc.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.globalSiteID = function(frame)
    	return mw.wikibase.getGlobalSiteId()
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- siteID returns the root of the globalSiteID
    -- e.g. "en" for "enwiki", "enwikisource", etc.
    -- treats "en-gb" as "en", etc.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.siteID = function(frame)
    	local txtlang = frame:preprocess( "{{int:lang}}" ) or ""
    	-- This deals with specific exceptions: be-tarask -> be-x-old
    	if txtlang == "be-tarask" then
    		return "be_x_old"
    	end
    	local pos = txtlang:find("-")
    	local ret = ""
    	if pos then
    		ret = txtlang:sub(1, pos-1)
    	else
    		ret = txtlang
    	end
    	return ret
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- projID returns the code used to link to the reader's language's project
    -- e.g "en" for [[:en:WikidataIB]]
    -- treats "en-gb" as "en", etc.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.projID = function(frame)
    	local txtlang = frame:preprocess( "{{int:lang}}" ) or ""
    	-- This deals with specific exceptions: be-tarask -> be-x-old
    	if txtlang == "be-tarask" then
    		return "be-x-old"
    	end
    	local pos = txtlang:find("-")
    	local ret = ""
    	if pos then
    		ret = txtlang:sub(1, pos-1)
    	else
    		ret = txtlang
    	end
    	return ret
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- formatNumber formats a number according to the the supplied language code ("|lang=")
    -- or the default language if not supplied.
    -- The number is the first unnamed parameter or "|num="
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: findLang()
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.formatNumber = function(frame)
    	local lang
    	local num = tonumber(frame.args[1] or frame.args.num) or 0
    	lang = findLang(frame.args.lang)
    	return lang:formatNum( num )
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- examine dumps the property (the unnamed parameter or pid)
    -- from the item given by the parameter 'qid' (or the other unnamed parameter)
    -- or from the item corresponding to the current page if qid is not supplied.
    -- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |pid=P26 |qid=Q42}}
    -- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |P26 |Q42}} or any combination of these
    -- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |P26}} for the current page.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.examine = function( frame )
    	local args
    	if frame.args[1] or frame.args.pid or frame.args.qid then
    		args = frame.args
    	else
    		args = frame:getParent().args
    	end
    	local par = {}
    	local pid = (args.pid or ""):upper()
    	local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
    	par[1] = mw.text.trim( args[1] or "" ):upper()
    	par[2] = mw.text.trim( args[2] or "" ):upper()
    	table.sort(par)
    	if par[2]:sub(1,1) == "P" then par[1], par[2] = par[2], par[1] end
    	if pid == "" then pid = par[1] end
    	if qid == "" then qid = par[2] end
    	local q1 = qid:sub(1,1)
    	if pid:sub(1,1) ~= "P" then return "No property supplied" end
    	if q1 ~= "Q" and q1 ~= "M" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return "No item for this page" end
    	return "<pre>" .. mw.dumpObject( mw.wikibase.getAllStatements( qid, pid ) ) .. "</pre>"
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- checkvalue looks for 'val' as a wikibase-item value of a property (the unnamed parameter or pid)
    -- from the item given by the parameter 'qid'
    -- or from the Wikidata item associated with the current page if qid is not supplied.
    -- It only checks ranks that are requested (preferred and normal by default)
    -- If property is not supplied, then P31 (instance of) is assumed.
    -- It returns val if found or nothing if not found.
    -- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |pid=P31 |qid=Q42}}
    -- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |P31 |qid=Q42}}
    -- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |qid=Q42}}
    -- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |P31}} for the current page.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.checkvalue = function( frame )
    	local args
    	if frame.args.val then
    		args = frame.args
    	else
    		args = frame:getParent().args
    	end
    	local val = args.val
    	if not val then return nil end
    	local pid = mw.text.trim(args.pid or args[1] or "P31"):upper()
    	local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
    	if pid:sub(1,1) ~= "P" then return nil end
    	if qid:sub(1,1) ~= "Q" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return nil end
    	local ranks = setRanks(args.rank)
    	local stats = {}
    	if ranks.b then
    		stats = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, pid)
    	else
    		stats = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements( qid, pid )
    	end
    	if not stats[1] then return nil end
    	if stats[1].mainsnak.datatype == "wikibase-item" then
    		for k, v in pairs( stats ) do
    			local ms = v.mainsnak
    			if ranks[v.rank:sub(1,1)] and ms.snaktype == "value" and ms.datavalue.value.id == val then
    				return val
    			end
    		end
    	end
    	return nil
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- url2 takes a parameter url= that is a proper url and formats it for use in an infobox.
    -- If no parameter is supplied, it returns nothing.
    -- This is the equivalent of Template:URL
    -- but it keeps the "edit at Wikidata" pen icon out of the microformat.
    -- Usually it will take its url parameter directly from a Wikidata call:
    -- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |url2 |url={{wdib |P856 |qid=Q23317 |fwd=ALL |osd=no}} }}
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.url2 = function(frame)
    	local txt = frame.args.url or ""
    	if txt == "" then return nil end
    	-- extract any icon
    	local url, icon = txt:match("(.+)&nbsp;(.+)")
    	-- make sure there's at least a space at the end
    	url = (url or txt) .. " "
    	icon = icon or ""
    	-- extract any protocol like https://
    	local prot = url:match("(https*://).+[ \"\']")
    	-- extract address
    	local addr = ""
    	if prot then
    		addr = url:match("https*://(.+)[ \"\']") or " "
    	else
    		prot = "//"
    		addr = url:match("[^%p%s]+%.(.+)[ \"\']") or " "
    	end
    	-- strip trailing / from end of domain-only url and add <wbr/> before . and /
    	local disp, n = addr:gsub( "^([^/]+)/$", "%1" ):gsub("%/", "<wbr/>/"):gsub("%.", "<wbr/>.")
    	return '<span class="url">[' .. prot .. addr .. " " .. disp .. "]</span>&nbsp;" .. icon
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getWebsite fetches the Official website (P856) and formats it for use in an infobox.
    -- This is similar to Template:Official website but with a url displayed,
    -- and it adds the "edit at Wikidata" pen icon beyond the microformat if enabled.
    -- A local value will override the Wikidata value. "NONE" returns nothing.
    -- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getWebsite |qid= |noicon= |lang= |url= }}
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: findLang(); parseParam();
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getWebsite = function(frame)
    	local url = frame.args.url or ""
    	if url:upper() == "NONE" then return nil end
    
    	local qid = frame.args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return nil end
    
    	local urls = {}
    	local quals = {}
    	if url == "" then
    		local prop856 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P856")
    		for k, v in pairs(prop856) do
    			if v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
    				urls[#urls+1] = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value
    				if v.qualifiers and v.qualifiers["P1065"] then
    					 -- just take the first archive url (P1065)
    					local au = v.qualifiers["P1065"][1]
    					if au.snaktype == "value" then
    						quals[#urls] = au.datavalue.value
    					end -- test for archive url having a value
    				end -- test for qualifers
    			end -- test for website having a value
    		end -- loop through website(s)
    	else
    		urls[1] = url
    	end
    	if #urls == 0 then return nil end
    
    	local out = {}
    	for i, u in ipairs(urls) do
    		local link = quals[i] or u
    		local prot, addr = u:match("(http[s]*://)(.+)")
    		addr = addr or u
    		local disp, n = addr:gsub("%.", "<wbr/>%.")
    		out[#out+1] = '<span class="url">[' .. link .. " " .. disp .. "]</span>"
    	end
    
    	local langcode = findLang(frame.args.lang).code
    	local noicon = parseParam(frame.args.noicon, false)
    	if url == "" and not noicon then
    		out[#out] = out[#out] .. createicon(langcode, qid, "P856")
    	end
    
    	local ret = ""
    	if #out > 1 then
    		ret = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "ubl", args = out}
    	else
    		ret = out[1]
    	end
    
    	return ret
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getAllLabels fetches the set of labels and formats it for display as wikitext.
    -- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getAllLabels = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}
    
    	local qid = args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end
    
    	local labels = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).labels
    	if not labels then return i18n["labels-not-found"] end
    
    	local out = {}
    	for k, v in pairs(labels) do
    		out[#out+1] = v.value .. " (" .. v.language .. ")"
    	end
    
    	return table.concat(out, "; ")
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getAllDescriptions fetches the set of descriptions and formats it for display as wikitext.
    -- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getAllDescriptions = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}
    
    	local qid = args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end
    
    	local descriptions = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).descriptions
    	if not descriptions then return i18n["descriptions-not-found"] end
    
    	local out = {}
    	for k, v in pairs(descriptions) do
    		out[#out+1] = v.value .. " (" .. v.language .. ")"
    	end
    
    	return table.concat(out, "; ")
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getAllAliases fetches the set of aliases and formats it for display as wikitext.
    -- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.getAllAliases = function(frame)
    	local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}
    
    	local qid = args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid or not mw.wikibase.entityExists(qid) then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end
    
    	local aliases = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid).aliases
    	if not aliases then return i18n["aliases-not-found"] end
    
    	local out = {}
    	for k1, v1 in pairs(aliases) do
    		local lang = v1[1].language
    		local val = {}
    		for k1, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
    			val[#val+1] = v2.value
    		end
    		out[#out+1] = table.concat(val, ", ") .. " (" .. lang .. ")"
    	end
    
    	return table.concat(out, "; ")
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- showNoLinks displays the article titles that should not be linked.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    p.showNoLinks = function(frame)
    	local out = {}
    	for k, v in pairs(donotlink) do
    		out[#out+1] = k
    	end
    	table.sort( out )
    	return table.concat(out, "; ")
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- checkValidity checks whether the first unnamed parameter represents a valid entity-id,
    -- that is, something like Q1235 or P123.
    -- It returns the strings "true" or "false".
    -- Change false to nil to return "true" or "" (easier to test with #if:).
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: none
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    function p.checkValidity(frame)
    	local id = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
    	if mw.wikibase.isValidEntityId(id) then
    		return true
    	else
    		return false
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getEntityFromTitle returns the Entity-ID (Q-number) for a given title.
    -- Modification of Module:ResolveEntityId
    -- The title is the first unnamed parameter.
    -- The site parameter determines the site/language for the title. Defaults to current wiki.
    -- The showdab parameter determines whether dab pages should return the Q-number or nil. Defaults to true.
    -- Returns the Q-number or nil if it does not exist.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    function p.getEntityFromTitle(frame)
    	local args=frame.args
    	if not args[1] then args=frame:getParent().args end
    	if not args[1] then return nil end
    	local title = mw.text.trim(args[1])
    	local site = args.site or ""
    	local showdab = parseParam(args.showdab, true)
    	local qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForTitle(title, site)
    	if qid then
    		local prop31 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P31")[1]
    		if not showdab and prop31 and prop31.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == "Q4167410" then
    			return nil
    		else
    			return qid
    		end
    	end
    end
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- getDatePrecision returns the number representing the precision of the first best date value
    -- for the given property.
    -- It takes the qid and property ID
    -- The meanings are given at https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Wikibase/DataModel#Dates_and_times
    -- 0 = 1 billion years .. 6 = millennium, 7 = century, 8 = decade, 9 = year, 10 = month, 11 = day
    -- Returns 0 (or the second unnamed parameter) if the Wikidata does not exist.
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- Dependencies: parseParam; sourced;
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    function p.getDatePrecision(frame)
    	local args=frame.args
    	if not args[1] then args=frame:getParent().args end
    	local default = tonumber(args[2] or args.default) or 0
    	local prop = mw.text.trim(args[1] or "")
    	if prop == "" then return default end
    	local qid = args.qid or ""
    	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
    	if not qid then return default end
    	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)
    	local stat = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, prop)
    	for i, v in ipairs(stat) do
    		local prec = (onlysrc == false or sourced(v))
    			and v.mainsnak.datavalue
    			and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value
    			and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.precision
    		if prec then return prec end
    	end
    	return default
    end
    
    
    return p
    
    
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    -- List of exported functions
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    --[[
    _getValue
    getValue
    getPreferredValue
    getCoords
    getQualifierValue
    getSumOfParts
    getValueByQual
    getValueByLang
    getValueByRefSource
    getPropertyIDs
    getQualifierIDs
    getPropOfProp
    getAwardCat
    getIntersectCat
    getGlobe
    getCommonsLink
    getSiteLink
    getLink
    getLabel
    label
    getAT
    getDescription
    getAliases
    pageId
    formatDate
    location
    checkBlacklist
    emptyor
    labelorid
    getLang
    getItemLangCode
    findLanguage
    getQID
    followQid
    globalSiteID
    siteID
    projID
    formatNumber
    examine
    checkvalue
    url2
    getWebsite
    getAllLabels
    getAllDescriptions
    getAllAliases
    showNoLinks
    checkValidity
    getEntityFromTitle
    getDatePrecision
    --]]
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
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