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    Farthest Frontier

    This template implements {{Item}}, {{Component}} and {{Format item}}.


    local p = {}
    
    local function escape(str)
    	return str:gsub("[|\\]", function (c) return string.format("\\%03d", c:byte()) end)
    end
    
    local function unescape(str)
    	return str:gsub("\\(%d%d%d)", function (d) return string.char(d) end)
    end
    
    -- Implements [[Template:Item]]
    function p.pack(frame)
    	local parent = frame:getParent()
    	local result = ''
    	for key, value in pairs(parent.args) do
    		result = result .. "|" .. escape(tostring(key)) .. "|" .. escape(value)
    	end
    	return result .. "|";
    end
    
    local function unpack(str)
    	local result = { }
    	for key, value in str:gfind("|([^|]*)|([^|]*)") do
    		result[unescape(key)] = unescape(value)
    	end
    	return result
    end
    
    -- Implements [[Template:Component]]
    function p.component(frame)
    	return unpack(frame.args[1])[frame.args[2]]
    end
    
    local function getItems(frame)
    	return frame:getParent().args
    end
    
    local function invert(tbl)
    	local result = { }
    	for key, value in pairs(tbl) do
    		result[value] = key
    	end
    	return result
    end
    
    -- Add args into item as appropriate (see [[Template:Format item]])
    local function addArgs(
    	item,   -- unpacked item to modify
    	args,   -- arguments for adding into item
    	ignore, -- pass in invert{keys to ignore}
    	shift   -- for numbered arguments, args[key+shift] is assigned to item[key]
    	-- returns: item
    )
    	for key, value in pairs(args) do
    		if not ignore[key] then
    			local _, _, paramKey = string.find(key, "^param (.*)")
    			local _, _, importantKey = string.find(key, "^important (.*)")
    			paramKey = paramKey or importantKey or key
    			if shift and type(paramKey) == "number" then
    				paramKey = paramKey - shift
    				if paramKey < 1 then paramKey = nil end
    			end
    			if paramKey and (importantKey or item[paramKey] == nil) then
    				item[paramKey] = value
    			end
    		end
    	end
    	
    	return item
    end
    
    -- Implements [[Template:Format item]]
    function p.format(frame)
    	local args = frame:getParent().args
    	local ignore = invert{ "template", "item" }
    	local templateArgs = addArgs(unpack(args.item), args, ignore)
    	
    	return frame:expandTemplate{ title = args.template, args = templateArgs }
    end
    
    -- See [[Template:Item#Format each item using a template]]
    function p.each(frame)
    	local args = frame.args
    	local items = getItems(frame)
    	local separator = args[1] or ""
    	local prepend = args[2] or ""
    	local append = args[3] or ""
    	local ignore = invert{ "template" }
    	local shift = 3
    
    	local result = ""
    	for i, item in ipairs(items) do
    		local templateArgs = addArgs(unpack(item), args, ignore, shift)
    		result = result .. prepend .. frame:expandTemplate{ title = args.template, args = templateArgs } .. append
    		if items[i + 1] then
    			result = result .. separator
    		end
    	end
    	return result
    end
    
    -- See [[Template:Item#Gather given parameter from all items]]
    function p.gather(frame)
    	local args = frame.args
    	local items = getItems(frame)
    	local parameter = args.parameter or "1"
    	
    	local templateArgs = { }
    	for i, item in ipairs(items) do
    		templateArgs[i] = unpack(item)[parameter]
    	end
    	
    	return frame:expandTemplate{ title = args.template, args = templateArgs }
    end
    
    return p
    
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