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    Farthest Frontier

    This module, migrated from origins in Module:Hatnote, provides functionality for formatting links for display, including that powering the {{format link}} template.

    It can pretty-format section links with the section symbol ("§") and appropriate whitespace, it automatically escapes category and file names with the colon trick, and includes functionality for italicizing the page or section name, and for detecting and categorizing results that produce red links.

    Use from wikitext

    The functions in this module cannot be used directly from #invoke, and must be used through templates instead. Please see Template:Format link for documentation on usage of that template.

    Use from other Lua modules

    To load this module from another Lua module, use the following code:

    local mFormatLink = require('Module:Format link')

    You can then use the functions as documented below.


        link = 'Link',
        display = 'Display',
        target = 'Target',
        italicizePage = true,
        italicizeSection = true,
        categorizeMissing = 'Pages using formatted red links'

    Formats link as a wikilink. Categories and files are automatically escaped with the colon trick, and links to sections are automatically formatted as page § section, rather than the MediaWiki default of page#section.

    Several options modify the output:

    • If the display value is present, then it will be used as a display value. Any manual piping (using the {{!}} magic word or similar) present in link will be overridden by the display value if present.
    • If the target value is present, then it will override link as a target, but the result will still be displayed using either the value from display, or the result of formatting link.
    • If italicizePage is true, then the page portion of the link is italicized if present.
    • If italicizeSection is true, then the section portion of the link is italicized if present.
    • If categorizeMissing is a non-empty string, then that value is used as a category name, and that category will be applied if the resulting target of the link (no matter whether through link or through target) doesn't exist.
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'Foo#Bar'} → [[:Foo#Bar|Foo § Bar]] → Foo § Bar
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'Baz', display = 'Qux'} → [[:Baz|Qux]] → Qux
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'Foo|Bar', display = 'Baz'} → [[:Foo|Baz]] → Baz
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = '#Foo', target = 'Example#Foo'} → [[:Example#Foo|§ Foo]] → § Foo
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'The Lord of the Rings#Plot', italicizePage = true} → [[:The Lord of the Rings#Plot|''The Lord of the Rings'' § Plot]] → The Lord of the Rings § Plot
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012#Disini v. Secretary of Justice', italicizeSection = true} → [[:Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012#Disini v. Secretary of Justice|Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 § ''Disini v. Secretary of Justice'']] → Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 § Disini v. Secretary of Justice
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'Nonexistent page', categorizeMissing = 'Example'} → [[:Nonexistent page]][[Category:Example]] → Nonexistent page
    mFormatLink._formatLink{link = 'Existing', categorizeMissing = 'Example'} → [[:Existing]] → Existing


    mFormatLink.formatPages(options, pages)

    This derived function is useful for lists that format many links. It formats an array of pages using the _formatLink function, and returns the result as an array. Options in the options table are applied, and use the same names as the options for _formatLink.

    mFormatLink.formatPages({categorizeMissing = 'Example'}, {'Foo#Bar', 'Nonexistent page'}){'[[:Foo#Bar|Foo § Bar]]', '[[:Nonexistent page]][[Category:Example]]'}


    If _formatLink is used and neither a link nor a target argument is provided, then the module will produce an error message instead of its usual output, as it cannot then produce valid output.

    You can solve this error by providing appropriate parameters to _formatLink, or you may want to ensure that a more descriptive error is provided by a downstream template or module when it would otherwise call _formatLink with inadequate arguments.

    -- Format link
    -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped
    -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed
    -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in
    -- the {{format link}} template.
    local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil')
    local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType
    local checkTypeForNamedArg = libraryUtil.checkTypeForNamedArg
    local mArguments -- lazily initialise [[Module:Arguments]]
    local mError -- lazily initialise [[Module:Error]]
    local yesno -- lazily initialise [[Module:Yesno]]
    local p = {}
    -- Helper functions
    local function getArgs(frame)
    	-- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and
    	-- blanks are removed.
    	mArguments = require('Module:Arguments')
    	return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true})
    local function removeInitialColon(s)
    	-- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present.
    	return s:match('^:?(.*)')
    local function maybeItalicize(s, shouldItalicize)
    	-- Italicize s if s is a string and the shouldItalicize parameter is true.
    	if s and shouldItalicize then
    		return '<i>' .. s .. '</i>'
    		return s
    local function parseLink(link)
    	-- Parse a link and return a table with the link's components.
    	-- These components are:
    	-- - link: the link, stripped of any initial colon (always present)
    	-- - page: the page name (always present)
    	-- - section: the page name (may be nil)
    	-- - display: the display text, if manually entered after a pipe (may be nil)
    	link = removeInitialColon(link)
    	-- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the {{!}} magic
    	-- word.
    	local prePipe, display = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$')
    	link = prePipe or link
    	-- Find the page, if it exists.
    	-- For links like [[#Bar]], the page will be nil.
    	local preHash, postHash = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$')
    	local page
    	if not preHash then
    		-- We have a link like [[Foo]].
    		page = link
    	elseif preHash ~= '' then
    		-- We have a link like [[Foo#Bar]].
    		page = preHash
    	-- Find the section, if it exists.
    	local section
    	if postHash and postHash ~= '' then
    		section = postHash
    	return {
    		link = link,
    		page = page,
    		section = section,
    		display = display,
    local function formatDisplay(parsed, options)
    	-- Formats a display string based on a parsed link table (matching the
    	-- output of parseLink) and an options table (matching the input options for
    	-- _formatLink).
    	local page = maybeItalicize(parsed.page, options.italicizePage)
    	local section = maybeItalicize(parsed.section, options.italicizeSection)
    	if (not section) then
    		return page
    	elseif (not page) then
    		return mw.ustring.format('§&nbsp;%s', section)
    		return mw.ustring.format('%s §&nbsp;%s', page, section)
    local function missingArgError(target)
    	mError = require('Module:Error')
    	return mError.error{message =
    		'Error: no link or target specified! ([[' .. target .. '#Errors|help]])'
    -- Main functions
    function p.formatLink(frame)
    	-- The formatLink export function, for use in templates.
    	yesno = require('Module:Yesno')
    	local args = getArgs(frame)
    	local link = args[1] or args.link
    	local target = args[3] or args.target
    	if not (link or target) then
    		return missingArgError('Template:Format link')
    	return p._formatLink{
    		link = link,
    		display = args[2] or args.display,
    		target = target,
    		italicizePage = yesno(args.italicizepage),
    		italicizeSection = yesno(args.italicizesection),
    		categorizeMissing = args.categorizemissing
    function p._formatLink(options)
    	-- The formatLink export function, for use in modules.
    	checkType('_formatLink', 1, options, 'table')
    	local function check(key, expectedType) --for brevity
    			'_formatLink', key, options[key], expectedType or 'string', true
    	check('italicizePage', 'boolean')
    	check('italicizeSection', 'boolean')
    	-- Normalize link and target and check that at least one is present
    	if options.link == '' then options.link = nil end
    	if options.target == '' then options.target = nil end
    	if not (options.link or options.target) then
    		return missingArgError('Module:Format link')
    	local parsed = parseLink(options.link)
    	local display = options.display or parsed.display
    	local catMissing = options.categorizeMissing
    	local category = ''
    	-- Find the display text
    	if not display then display = formatDisplay(parsed, options) end
    	-- Handle the target option if present
    	if options.target then
    		local parsedTarget = parseLink(options.target)
    		parsed.link = parsedTarget.link
    		parsed.page = parsedTarget.page
    	-- Test if page exists if a diagnostic category is specified
    	if catMissing and (mw.ustring.len(catMissing) > 0) then
    		local title = nil
    		if parsed.page then title = mw.title.new(parsed.page) end
    		if title and (not title.isExternal) and (not title.exists) then
    			category = mw.ustring.format('[[Category:%s]]', catMissing)
    	-- Format the result as a link
    	if parsed.link == display then
    		return mw.ustring.format('[[:%s]]%s', parsed.link, category)
    		return mw.ustring.format('[[:%s|%s]]%s', parsed.link, display, category)
    -- Derived convenience functions
    function p.formatPages(options, pages)
    	-- Formats an array of pages using formatLink and the given options table,
    	-- and returns it as an array. Nil values are not allowed.
    	local ret = {}
    	for i, page in ipairs(pages) do
    		ret[i] = p._formatLink{
    			link = page,
    			categorizeMissing = options.categorizeMissing,
    			italicizePage = options.italicizePage,
    			italicizeSection = options.italicizeSection
    	return ret
    return p
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