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    Farthest Frontier


    Documentation for this module may be created at Module:Citation/CS1/COinS/sandbox/doc

    History of changes since last sync: 2022-01-22
    --[[--------------------------< F O R W A R D   D E C L A R A T I O N S >--------------------------------------
    local has_accept_as_written, is_set, in_array, remove_wiki_link, strip_apostrophe_markup;	-- functions in Module:Citation/CS1/Utilities
    local cfg;																		-- table of configuration tables that are defined in Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration
    --[[--------------------------< M A K E _ C O I N S _ T I T L E >----------------------------------------------
    Makes a title for COinS from Title and / or ScriptTitle (or any other name-script pairs)
    Apostrophe markup (bold, italics) is stripped from each value so that the COinS metadata isn't corrupted with strings
    of %27%27...
    local function make_coins_title (title, script)
    	title = has_accept_as_written (title);
    	if is_set (title) then
    		title = strip_apostrophe_markup (title);								-- strip any apostrophe markup
    		title = '';																-- if not set, make sure title is an empty string
    	if is_set (script) then
    		script = script:gsub ('^%l%l%s*:%s*', '');								-- remove language prefix if present (script value may now be empty string)
    		script = strip_apostrophe_markup (script);								-- strip any apostrophe markup
    		script = '';															-- if not set, make sure script is an empty string
    	if is_set (title) and is_set (script) then
    		script = ' ' .. script;													-- add a space before we concatenate
    	return title .. script;														-- return the concatenation
    --[[--------------------------< E S C A P E _ L U A _ M A G I C _ C H A R S >----------------------------------
    Returns a string where all of Lua's magic characters have been escaped.  This is important because functions like
    string.gsub() treat their pattern and replace strings as patterns, not literal strings.
    local function escape_lua_magic_chars (argument)
    	argument = argument:gsub("%%", "%%%%");										-- replace % with %%
    	argument = argument:gsub("([%^%$%(%)%.%[%]%*%+%-%?])", "%%%1");				-- replace all other Lua magic pattern characters
    	return argument;
    --[[--------------------------< G E T _ C O I N S _ P A G E S >------------------------------------------------
    Extract page numbers from external wikilinks in any of the |page=, |pages=, or |at= parameters for use in COinS.
    local function get_coins_pages (pages)
    	local pattern;
    	if not is_set (pages) then return pages; end								-- if no page numbers then we're done
    	while true do
    		pattern = pages:match("%[(%w*:?//[^ ]+%s+)[%w%d].*%]");					-- pattern is the opening bracket, the URL and following space(s): "[url "
    		if nil == pattern then break; end										-- no more URLs
    		pattern = escape_lua_magic_chars (pattern);								-- pattern is not a literal string; escape Lua's magic pattern characters
    		pages = pages:gsub(pattern, "");										-- remove as many instances of pattern as possible
    	pages = pages:gsub("[%[%]]", "");											-- remove the brackets
    	pages = pages:gsub("–", "-" );												-- replace endashes with hyphens
    	pages = pages:gsub("&%w+;", "-" );											-- and replace HTML entities (&ndash; etc.) with hyphens; do we need to replace numerical entities like &#32; and the like?
    	return pages;
    --[=[-------------------------< C O I N S _ R E P L A C E _ M A T H _ S T R I P M A R K E R >------------------
    There are three options for math markup rendering that depend on the editor's math preference settings.  These
    settings are at [[Special:Preferences#mw-prefsection-rendering]] and are
    	PNG images
    	TeX source
    	MathML with SVG or PNG fallback
    All three are heavy with HTML and CSS which doesn't belong in the metadata.
    Without this function, the metadata saved in the raw wikitext contained the rendering determined by the settings
    of the last editor to save the page.
    This function gets the rendered form of an equation according to the editor's preference before the page is saved.  It
    then searches the rendering for the text equivalent of the rendered equation and replaces the rendering with that so
    that the page is saved without extraneous HTML/CSS markup and with a reasonably readable text form of the equation.
    When a replacement is made, this function returns true and the value with replacement; otherwise false and the initial
    value.  To replace multipe equations it is necessary to call this function from within a loop.
    local function coins_replace_math_stripmarker (value)
    	local stripmarker = cfg.stripmarkers['math'];
    	local rendering = value:match (stripmarker);								-- is there a math stripmarker
    	if not rendering then														-- when value doesn't have a math stripmarker, abandon this test
    		return false, value;
    	rendering = mw.text.unstripNoWiki (rendering);								-- convert stripmarker into rendered value (or nil? ''? when math render error)
    	if rendering:match ('alt="[^"]+"') then										-- if PNG math option
    		rendering = rendering:match ('alt="([^"]+)"');							-- extract just the math text
    	elseif rendering:match ('$%s+.+%s+%$') then									-- if TeX math option; $ is legit character that is escapes as \$
    		rendering = rendering:match ('$%s+(.+)%s+%$')							-- extract just the math text
    	elseif rendering:match ('<annotation[^>]+>.+</annotation>') then			-- if MathML math option
    		rendering = rendering:match ('<annotation[^>]+>(.+)</annotation>')		-- extract just the math text
    		return false, value;													-- had math stripmarker but not one of the three defined forms
    	return true, value:gsub (stripmarker, rendering, 1);
    --[[--------------------------< C O I N S _ C L E A N U P >----------------------------------------------------
    Cleanup parameter values for the metadata by removing or replacing invisible characters and certain HTML entities.
    2015-12-10: there is a bug in mw.text.unstripNoWiki ().  It replaces math stripmarkers with the appropriate content
    when it shouldn't.  See https://phabricator.wikimedia.org/T121085 and Wikipedia_talk:Lua#stripmarkers_and_mw.text.unstripNoWiki.28.29
    TODO: move the replacement patterns and replacement values into a table in /Configuration similar to the invisible
    characters table?
    local function coins_cleanup (value)
    	local replaced = true;														-- default state to get the do loop running
    	while replaced do															-- loop until all math stripmarkers replaced
    		replaced, value = coins_replace_math_stripmarker (value);				-- replace math stripmarker with text representation of the equation
    	value = value:gsub (cfg.stripmarkers['math'], "MATH RENDER ERROR");			-- one or more couldn't be replaced; insert vague error message
    	value = mw.text.unstripNoWiki (value);										-- replace nowiki stripmarkers with their content
    	value = value:gsub ('<span class="nowrap" style="padding%-left:0%.1em;">&#39;(s?)</span>', "'%1");	-- replace {{'}} or {{'s}} with simple apostrophe or apostrophe-s
    	value = value:gsub ('&nbsp;', ' ');											-- replace &nbsp; entity with plain space
    	value = value:gsub ('\226\128\138', ' ');									-- replace hair space with plain space
    	if not mw.ustring.find (value, cfg.indic_script) then						-- don't remove zero-width joiner characters from indic script
    		value = value:gsub ('&zwj;', '');										-- remove &zwj; entities
    		value = mw.ustring.gsub (value, '[\226\128\141\226\128\139\194\173]', '');	-- remove zero-width joiner, zero-width space, soft hyphen
    	value = value:gsub ('[\009\010\013 ]+', ' ');								-- replace horizontal tab, line feed, carriage return with plain space
    	return value;
    --[[--------------------------< C O I N S >--------------------------------------------------------------------
    COinS metadata (see <http://ocoins.info/>) allows automated tools to parse the citation information.
    local function COinS(data, class)
    	if 'table' ~= type(data) or nil == next(data) then
    		return '';
    	for k, v in pairs (data) do													-- spin through all of the metadata parameter values
    		if 'ID_list' ~= k and 'Authors' ~= k then								-- except the ID_list and Author tables (author nowiki stripmarker done when Author table processed)
    			data[k] = coins_cleanup (v);
    	local ctx_ver = "Z39.88-2004";
    	-- treat table strictly as an array with only set values.
    	local OCinSoutput = setmetatable( {}, {
    		__newindex = function(self, key, value)
    			if is_set(value) then
    				rawset( self, #self+1, table.concat{ key, '=', mw.uri.encode( remove_wiki_link( value ) ) } );
    	if in_array (class, {'arxiv', 'biorxiv', 'citeseerx', 'ssrn', 'journal', 'news', 'magazine'}) or
    		(in_array (class, {'conference', 'interview', 'map', 'press release', 'web'}) and is_set(data.Periodical)) or
    		('citation' == class and is_set(data.Periodical) and not is_set (data.Encyclopedia)) then
    			OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal";			-- journal metadata identifier
    			if in_array (class, {'arxiv', 'biorxiv', 'citeseerx', 'ssrn'}) then	-- set genre according to the type of citation template we are rendering
    				OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "preprint";							-- cite arxiv, cite biorxiv, cite citeseerx, cite ssrn
    			elseif 'conference' == class then
    				OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "conference";						-- cite conference (when Periodical set)
    			elseif 'web' == class then
    				OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "unknown";							-- cite web (when Periodical set)
    				OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "article";							-- journal and other 'periodical' articles
    			OCinSoutput["rft.jtitle"] = data.Periodical;						-- journal only
    			OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Title;								-- 'periodical' article titles
    																				-- these used only for periodicals
    			OCinSoutput["rft.ssn"] = data.Season;								-- keywords: winter, spring, summer, fall
    			OCinSoutput["rft.quarter"] = data.Quarter;							-- single digits 1->first quarter, etc.
    			OCinSoutput["rft.chron"] = data.Chron;								-- free-form date components
    			OCinSoutput["rft.volume"] = data.Volume;							-- does not apply to books
    			OCinSoutput["rft.issue"] = data.Issue;
    			OCinSoutput['rft.artnum'] = data.ArticleNumber;						-- {{cite journal}} only
    			OCinSoutput["rft.pages"] = data.Pages;								-- also used in book metadata
    	elseif 'thesis' ~= class then												-- all others except cite thesis are treated as 'book' metadata; genre distinguishes
    		OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book";					-- book metadata identifier
    		if 'report' == class or 'techreport' == class then						-- cite report and cite techreport
    			OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "report";
    		elseif 'conference' == class then										-- cite conference when Periodical not set
    			OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "conference";
    			OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Chapter;							-- conference paper as chapter in proceedings (book)
    		elseif in_array (class, {'book', 'citation', 'encyclopaedia', 'interview', 'map'}) then
    			if is_set (data.Chapter) then
    				OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "bookitem";
    				OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Chapter;						-- book chapter, encyclopedia article, interview in a book, or map title
    				if 'map' == class or 'interview' == class then
    					OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = 'unknown';						-- standalone map or interview
    					OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = 'book';							-- book and encyclopedia
    		else	-- {'audio-visual', 'AV-media-notes', 'DVD-notes', 'episode', 'interview', 'mailinglist', 'map', 'newsgroup', 'podcast', 'press release', 'serial', 'sign', 'speech', 'web'}
    			OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "unknown";
    		OCinSoutput["rft.btitle"] = data.Title;									-- book only
    		OCinSoutput["rft.place"] = data.PublicationPlace;						-- book only
    		OCinSoutput["rft.series"] = data.Series;								-- book only
    		OCinSoutput["rft.pages"] = data.Pages;									-- book, journal
    		OCinSoutput["rft.edition"] = data.Edition;								-- book only
    		OCinSoutput["rft.pub"] = data.PublisherName;							-- book and dissertation
    	else																		-- cite thesis
    		OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation";			-- dissertation metadata identifier
    		OCinSoutput["rft.title"] = data.Title;									-- dissertation (also patent but that is not yet supported)
    		OCinSoutput["rft.degree"] = data.Degree;								-- dissertation only
    		OCinSoutput['rft.inst'] = data.PublisherName;							-- book and dissertation
    	-- NB. Not currently supported are "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:patent", "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dc", "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:sch_svc", "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx"
    																				-- and now common parameters (as much as possible)
    	OCinSoutput["rft.date"] = data.Date;										-- book, journal, dissertation
    	for k, v in pairs( data.ID_list ) do										-- what to do about these? For now assume that they are common to all?
    		if k == 'ISBN' then v = v:gsub( "[^-0-9X]", "" ); end
    		local id = cfg.id_handlers[k].COinS;
    		if string.sub( id or "", 1, 4 ) == 'info' then							-- for ids that are in the info:registry
    			OCinSoutput["rft_id"] = table.concat{ id, "/", v };
    		elseif string.sub (id or "", 1, 3 ) == 'rft' then						-- for isbn, issn, eissn, etc. that have defined COinS keywords
    			OCinSoutput[ id ] = v;
    		elseif 'url' == id then													-- for urls that are assembled in ~/Identifiers; |asin= and |ol=
    			OCinSoutput["rft_id"] = table.concat ({data.ID_list[k], "#id-name=", cfg.id_handlers[k].label});
    		elseif id then															-- when cfg.id_handlers[k].COinS is not nil so urls created here
    			OCinSoutput["rft_id"] = table.concat{ cfg.id_handlers[k].prefix, v, cfg.id_handlers[k].suffix or '', "#id-name=", cfg.id_handlers[k].label };	-- others; provide a URL and indicate identifier name as #fragment (human-readable, but transparent to browsers)
    	local last, first;
    	for k, v in ipairs( data.Authors ) do
    		last, first = coins_cleanup (v.last), coins_cleanup (v.first or '');	-- replace any nowiki stripmarkers, non-printing or invisible characters
    		if k == 1 then															-- for the first author name only
    			if is_set(last) and is_set(first) then								-- set these COinS values if |first= and |last= specify the first author name
    				OCinSoutput["rft.aulast"] = last;								-- book, journal, dissertation
    				OCinSoutput["rft.aufirst"] = first;								-- book, journal, dissertation
    			elseif is_set(last) then 
    				OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = last;									-- book, journal, dissertation -- otherwise use this form for the first name
    		else																	-- for all other authors
    			if is_set(last) and is_set(first) then
    				OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = table.concat{ last, ", ", first };		-- book, journal, dissertation
    			elseif is_set(last) then
    				OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = last;									-- book, journal, dissertation
    			-- TODO: At present we do not report "et al.". Add anything special if this condition applies?
    	OCinSoutput.rft_id = data.URL;
    	OCinSoutput.rfr_id = table.concat{ "info:sid/", mw.site.server:match( "[^/]*$" ), ":", data.RawPage };
    	-- TODO: Add optional extra info:
    	-- rfr_dat=#REVISION<version> (referrer private data)
    	-- ctx_id=<data.RawPage>#<ref> (identifier for the context object)
    	-- ctx_tim=<ts> (timestamp in format yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ssTZD or yyyy-mm-dd)
    	-- ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8 (character encoding)
    	OCinSoutput = setmetatable( OCinSoutput, nil );
    	-- sort with version string always first, and combine.
    	-- table.sort( OCinSoutput );
    	table.insert( OCinSoutput, 1, "ctx_ver=" .. ctx_ver ); -- such as "Z39.88-2004"
    	return table.concat(OCinSoutput, "&");
    --[[--------------------------< S E T _ S E L E C T E D _ M O D U L E S >--------------------------------------
    Sets local cfg table and imported functions table to same (live or sandbox) as that used by the other modules.
    local function set_selected_modules (cfg_table_ptr, utilities_page_ptr)
    	cfg = cfg_table_ptr;
    	has_accept_as_written = utilities_page_ptr.has_accept_as_written;			-- import functions from selected Module:Citation/CS1/Utilities module
    	is_set = utilities_page_ptr.is_set;
    	in_array = utilities_page_ptr.in_array;
    	remove_wiki_link = utilities_page_ptr.remove_wiki_link;
    	strip_apostrophe_markup = utilities_page_ptr.strip_apostrophe_markup;
    --[[--------------------------< E X P O R T E D   F U N C T I O N S >------------------------------------------
    return {
    	make_coins_title = make_coins_title,
    	get_coins_pages = get_coins_pages,
    	COinS = COinS,
    	set_selected_modules = set_selected_modules,
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